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SIGGRAPH '02: Proceedings of the 29th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques

Section: Images and video

Video matting of complex scenes
Yung-Yu Chuang, Aseem Agarwala, Brian Curless, David H. Salesin, Richard Szeliski
Pages: 243-248
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566572
This paper describes a new framework for video matting, the process of pulling a high-quality alpha matte and foreground from a video sequence. The framework builds upon techniques in natural image matting, optical flow computation, and...

Gradient domain high dynamic range compression
Raanan Fattal, Dani Lischinski, Michael Werman
Pages: 249-256
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566573
We present a new method for rendering high dynamic range images on conventional displays. Our method is conceptually simple, computationally efficient, robust, and easy to use. We manipulate the gradient field of the luminance image by attenuating...

Fast bilateral filtering for the display of high-dynamic-range images
Frédo Durand, Julie Dorsey
Pages: 257-266
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566574
We present a new technique for the display of high-dynamic-range images, which reduces the contrast while preserving detail. It is based on a two-scale decomposition of the image into a base layer, encoding large-scale variations, and a detail layer....

Photographic tone reproduction for digital images
Erik Reinhard, Michael Stark, Peter Shirley, James Ferwerda
Pages: 267-276
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566575
A classic photographic task is the mapping of the potentially high dynamic range of real world luminances to the low dynamic range of the photographic print. This tone reproduction problem is also faced by computer graphics practitioners who map...

Transferring color to greyscale images
Tomihisa Welsh, Michael Ashikhmin, Klaus Mueller
Pages: 277-280
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566576
We introduce a general technique for "colorizing" greyscale images by transferring color between a source, color image and a destination, greyscale image. Although the general problem of adding chromatic values to a greyscale image has no exact,...

Section: Images and video

CHARMS: a simple framework for adaptive simulation
Eitan Grinspun, Petr Krysl, Peter Schröder
Pages: 281-290
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566578
Finite element solvers are a basic component of simulation applications; they are common in computer graphics, engineering, and medical simulations. Although adaptive solvers can be of great value in reducing the often high computational cost...

Graphical modeling and animation of ductile fracture
James F. O'Brien, Adam W. Bargteil, Jessica K. Hodgins
Pages: 291-294
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566579
In this paper, we describe a method for realistically animating ductile fracture in common solid materials such as plastics and metals. The effects that characterize ductile fracture occur due to interaction between plastic yielding and the fracture...

Creating models of truss structures with optimization
Jeffrey Smith, Jessica Hodgins, Irving Oppenheim, Andrew Witkin
Pages: 295-301
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566580
We present a method for designing truss structures, a common and complex category of buildings, using non-linear optimization. Truss structures are ubiquitous in the industrialized world, appearing as bridges, towers, roof supports and building...

A procedural approach to authoring solid models
Barbara Cutler, Julie Dorsey, Leonard McMillan, Matthias Müller, Robert Jagnow
Pages: 302-311
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566581
We present a procedural approach to authoring layered, solid models. Using a simple scripting language, we define the internal structure of a volume from one or more input meshes. Sculpting and simulation operators are applied within the context of...

Section: Images and video

Cut-and-paste editing of multiresolution surfaces
Henning Biermann, Ioana Martin, Fausto Bernardini, Denis Zorin
Pages: 312-321
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566583
Cutting and pasting to combine different elements into a common structure are widely used operations that have been successfully adapted to many media types. Surface design could also benefit from the availability of a general, robust, and efficient...

Pointshop 3D: an interactive system for point-based surface editing
Matthias Zwicker, Mark Pauly, Oliver Knoll, Markus Gross
Pages: 322-329
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566584
We present a system for interactive shape and appearance editing of 3D point-sampled geometry. By generalizing conventional 2D pixel editors, our system supports a great variety of different interaction techniques to alter shape and appearance of 3D...

Level set surface editing operators
Ken Museth, David E. Breen, Ross T. Whitaker, Alan H. Barr
Pages: 330-338
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566585
We present a level set framework for implementing editing operators for surfaces. Level set models are deformable implicit surfaces where the deformation of the surface is controlled by a speed function in the level set partial differential equation....

Dual contouring of hermite data
Tao Ju, Frank Losasso, Scott Schaefer, Joe Warren
Pages: 339-346
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566586
This paper describes a new method for contouring a signed grid whose edges are tagged by Hermite data (i.e; exact intersection points and normals). This method avoids the need to explicitly identify and process "features" as required in previous...

Section: Images and video

Interactive geometry remeshing
Pierre Alliez, Mark Meyer, Mathieu Desbrun
Pages: 347-354
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566588
We present a novel technique, both flexible and efficient, for interactive remeshing of irregular geometry. First, the original (arbitrary genus) mesh is substituted by a series of 2D maps in parameter space. Using these maps, our algorithm is then...

Geometry images
Xianfeng Gu, Steven J. Gortler, Hugues Hoppe
Pages: 355-361
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566589
Surface geometry is often modeled with irregular triangle meshes. The process of remeshing refers to approximating such geometry using a mesh with (semi)-regular connectivity, which has advantages for many graphics applications. However, current...

Least squares conformal maps for automatic texture atlas generation
Bruno Lévy, Sylvain Petitjean, Nicolas Ray, Jérome Maillot
Pages: 362-371
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566590
A Texture Atlas is an efficient color representation for 3D Paint Systems. The model to be textured is decomposed into charts homeomorphic to discs, each chart is parameterized, and the unfolded charts are packed in texture space. Existing texture...

Progressive lossless compression of arbitrary simplicial complexes
Pierre-Marie Gandoin, Olivier Devillers
Pages: 372-379
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566591
Efficient algorithms for compressing geometric data have been widely developed in the recent years, but they are mainly designed for closed polyhedral surfaces which are manifold or "nearly manifold". We propose here a progressive...

Linear combination of transformations
Marc Alexa
Pages: 380-387
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566592
Geometric transformations are most commonly represented as square matrices in computer graphics. Following simple geometric arguments we derive a natural and geometrically meaningful definition of scalar multiples and a commutative addition of...

Section: Images and video

Trainable videorealistic speech animation
Tony Ezzat, Gadi Geiger, Tomaso Poggio
Pages: 388-398
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566594
We describe how to create with machine learning techniques a generative, speech animation module. A human subject is first recorded using a videocamera as he/she utters a predetermined speech corpus. After processing the corpus automatically, a...

Turning to the masters: motion capturing cartoons
Christoph Bregler, Lorie Loeb, Erika Chuang, Hrishi Deshpande
Pages: 399-407
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566595
In this paper, we present a technique we call "cartoon capture and retargeting" which we use to track the motion from traditionally animated cartoons and retarget it onto 3-D models, 2-D drawings, and photographs. By using animation as the source, we...

Synthesis of complex dynamic character motion from simple animations
C. Karen Liu, Zoran Popović
Pages: 408-416
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566596
In this paper we present a general method for rapid prototyping of realistic character motion. We solve for the natural motion from a simple animation provided by the animator. Our framework can be used to produce relatively complex realistic motion...

Integrated learning for interactive synthetic characters
Bruce Blumberg, Marc Downie, Yuri Ivanov, Matt Berlin, Michael Patrick Johnson, Bill Tomlinson
Pages: 417-426
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566597
The ability to learn is a potentially compelling and important quality for interactive synthetic characters. To that end, we describe a practical approach to real-time learning for synthetic characters. Our implementation is grounded in the...

Section: Images and video

Image-based 3D photography using opacity hulls
Wojciech Matusik, Hanspeter Pfister, Addy Ngan, Paul Beardsley, Remo Ziegler, Leonard McMillan
Pages: 427-437
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566599
We have built a system for acquiring and displaying high quality graphical models of objects that are impossible to scan with traditional scanners. Our system can acquire highly specular and fuzzy materials, such as fur and feathers. The hardware...

Real-time 3D model acquisition
Szymon Rusinkiewicz, Olaf Hall-Holt, Marc Levoy
Pages: 438-446
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566600
The digitization of the 3D shape of real objects is a rapidly expanding field, with applications in entertainment, design, and archaeology. We propose a new 3D model acquisition system that permits the user to rotate an object by hand and see a...

Light field mapping: efficient representation and hardware rendering of surface light fields
Wei-Chao Chen, Jean-Yves Bouguet, Michael H. Chu, Radek Grzeszczuk
Pages: 447-456
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566601
A light field parameterized on the surface offers a natural and intuitive description of the view-dependent appearance of scenes with complex reflectance properties. To enable the use of surface light fields in real-time rendering we develop a...

Feature-based light field morphing
Zhunping Zhang, Lifeng Wang, Baining Guo, Heung-Yeung Shum
Pages: 457-464
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566602
We present a feature-based technique for morphing 3D objects represented by light fields. Our technique enables morphing of image-based objects whose geometry and surface properties are too difficult to model with traditional vision and graphics...

Section: Images and video

Motion texture: a two-level statistical model for character motion synthesis
Yan Li, Tianshu Wang, Heung-Yeung Shum
Pages: 465-472
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566604
In this paper, we describe a novel technique, called motion texture, for synthesizing complex human-figure motion (e.g., dancing) that is statistically similar to the original motion captured data. We define motion texture as a set of motion textons...

Motion graphs
Lucas Kovar, Michael Gleicher, Frédéric Pighin
Pages: 473-482
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566605
In this paper we present a novel method for creating realistic, controllable motion. Given a corpus of motion capture data, we automatically construct a directed graph called a motion graph that encapsulates connections among the database. The...

Interactive motion generation from examples
Okan Arikan, D. A. Forsyth
Pages: 483-490
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566606
There are many applications that demand large quantities of natural looking motion. It is difficult to synthesize motion that looks natural, particularly when it is people who must move. In this paper, we present a framework that generates human...

Interactive control of avatars animated with human motion data
Jehee Lee, Jinxiang Chai, Paul S. A. Reitsma, Jessica K. Hodgins, Nancy S. Pollard
Pages: 491-500
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566607
Real-time control of three-dimensional avatars is an important problem in the context of computer games and virtual environments. Avatar animation and control is difficult, however, because a large repertoire of avatar behaviors must be made...

Motion capture assisted animation: texturing and synthesis
Katherine Pullen, Christoph Bregler
Pages: 501-508
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566608
We discuss a method for creating animations that allows the animator to sketch an animation by setting a small number of keyframes on a fraction of the possible degrees of freedom. Motion capture data is then used to enhance the animation. Detail is...

Section: Images and video

Homomorphic factorization of BRDF-based lighting computation
Lutz Latta, Andreas Kolb
Pages: 509-516
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566610
Several techniques have been developed to approximate Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) with acceptable quality and performance for realtime applications. The recently published Homomorphic Factorization by McCool et al....

Frequency space environment map rendering
Ravi Ramamoorthi, Pat Hanrahan
Pages: 517-526
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566611
We present a new method for real-time rendering of objects with complex isotropic BRDFs under distant natural illumination, as specified by an environment map. Our approach is based on spherical frequency space analysis and includes three main...

Precomputed radiance transfer for real-time rendering in dynamic, low-frequency lighting environments
Peter-Pike Sloan, Jan Kautz, John Snyder
Pages: 527-536
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566612
We present a new, real-time method for rendering diffuse and glossy objects in low-frequency lighting environments that captures soft shadows, interreflections, and caustics. As a preprocess, a novel global transport simulator creates functions over...

Interactive global illumination in dynamic scenes
Parag Tole, Fabio Pellacini, Bruce Walter, Donald P. Greenberg
Pages: 537-546
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566613
In this paper, we present a system for interactive computation of global illumination in dynamic scenes. Our system uses a novel scheme for caching the results of a high quality pixel-based renderer such as a bidirectional path tracer. The Shading...

A lighting reproduction approach to live-action compositing
Paul Debevec, Andreas Wenger, Chris Tchou, Andrew Gardner, Jamie Waese, Tim Hawkins
Pages: 547-556
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566614
We describe a process for compositing a live performance of an actor into a virtual set wherein the actor is consistently illuminated by the virtual environment. The Light Stage used in this work is a two-meter sphere of inward-pointing RGB light...

Section: Images and video

Perspective shadow maps
Marc Stamminger, George Drettakis
Pages: 557-562
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566616
Shadow maps are probably the most widely used means for the generation of shadows, despite their well known aliasing problems. In this paper we introduce perspective shadow maps, which are generated in normalized device coordinate space, i.e.,...

A user interface for interactive cinematic shadow design
Fabio Pellacini, Parag Tole, Donald P. Greenberg
Pages: 563-566
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566617
Placing shadows is difficult task since shadows depend on the relative positions of lights and objects in an unintuitive manner. To simplify the task of the modeler, we present a user interface for designing shadows in 3d environments. In our...

Robust epsilon visibility
Florent Duguet, George Drettakis
Pages: 567-575
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566618
Analytic visibility algorithms, for example methods which compute a subdivided mesh to represent shadows, are notoriously unrobust and hard to use in practice. We present a new method based on a generalized definition of extremal stabbing lines,...

A rapid hierarchical rendering technique for translucent materials
Henrik Wann Jensen, Juan Buhler
Pages: 576-581
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566619
This paper introduces an efficient two-pass rendering technique for translucent materials. We decouple the computation of irradianceat the surface from the evaluation of scattering inside the material.This is done by splitting the evaluation into two...

Section: Images and video

DyRT: dynamic response textures for real time deformation simulation with graphics hardware
Doug L. James, Dinesh K. Pai
Pages: 582-585
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566621
In this paper we describe how to simulate geometrically complex, interactive, physically-based, volumetric, dynamic deformation models with negligible main CPU costs. This is achieved using a Dynamic Response...

Interactive skeleton-driven dynamic deformations
Steve Capell, Seth Green, Brian Curless, Tom Duchamp, Zoran Popović
Pages: 586-593
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566622
This paper presents a framework for the skeleton-driven animation of elastically deformable characters. A character is embedded in a coarse volumetric control lattice, which provides the structure needed to apply the finite element method. To...

Robust treatment of collisions, contact and friction for cloth animation
Robert Bridson, Ronald Fedkiw, John Anderson
Pages: 594-603
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566623
We present an algorithm to efficiently and robustly process collisions, contact and friction in cloth simulation. It works with any technique for simulating the internal dynamics of the cloth, and allows true modeling of cloth thickness. We also show...

Stable but responsive cloth
Kwang-Jin Choi, Hyeong-Seok Ko
Pages: 604-611
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566624
We present a semi-implicit cloth simulation technique that is very stable yet also responsive. The stability of the technique allows the use of a large fixed time step when simulating all types of fabrics and character motions. The animations...

Section: Images and video

Articulated body deformation from range scan data
Brett Allen, Brian Curless, Zoran Popović
Pages: 612-619
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566626
This paper presents an example-based method for calculating skeleton-driven body deformations. Our example data consists of range scans of a human body in a variety of poses. Using markers captured during range scanning, we construct a kinematic...

Interactive multiresolution hair modeling and editing
Tae-Yong Kim, Ulrich Neumann
Pages: 620-629
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566627
Human hair modeling is a difficult task. This paper presents a constructive hair modeling system with which users can sculpt a wide variety of hairstyles. Our Multiresolution Hair Modeling (MHM) system is based on the observed tendency of adjacent...

Modeling and rendering of realistic feathers
Yanyun Chen, Yingqing Xu, Baining Guo, Heung-Yeung Shum
Pages: 630-636
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566628
We present techniques for realistic modeling and rendering of feathers and birds. Our approach is motivated by the observation that a feather is a branching structure that can be described by an L-system. The parametric L-system we derived allows the...

Eyes alive
Sooha Park Lee, Jeremy B. Badler, Norman I. Badler
Pages: 637-644
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566629
For an animated human face model to appear natural it should produce eye movements consistent with human ocular behavior. During face-to-face conversational interactions, eyes exhibit conversational turn-taking and agent thought processes through...

Physiological measures of presence in stressful virtual environments
Michael Meehan, Brent Insko, Mary Whitton, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr.
Pages: 645-652
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566630
A common measure of the quality or effectiveness of a virtual environment (VE) is the mount of presence it evokes in users. Presence is often defined as the sense of being there in a VE. There has been much debate about the best way to...

Section: Images and video

Self-similarity based texture editing
Stephen Brooks, Neil Dodgson
Pages: 653-656
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566632
We present a simple method of interactive texture editing that utilizes self-similarity to replicate intended operations globally over an image. Inspired by the recent successes of hierarchical approaches to texture synthesis, this method also uses...

Jigsaw image mosaics
Junhwan Kim, Fabio Pellacini
Pages: 657-664
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566633
This paper introduces a new kind of mosaic, called Jigsaw Image Mosaic (JIM), where image tiles of arbitrary shape are used to compose the final picture. The generation of a Jigsaw Image Mosaic is a solution to the following problem: given an...

Synthesis of bidirectional texture functions on arbitrary surfaces
Xin Tong, Jingdan Zhang, Ligang Liu, Xi Wang, Baining Guo, Heung-Yeung Shum
Pages: 665-672
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566634
The bidirectional texture function (BTF) is a 6D function that can describe textures arising from both spatially-variant surface reflectance and surface mesostructures. In this paper, we present an algorithm for synthesizing the BTF on an arbitrary...

Hierarchical pattern mapping
Cyril Soler, Marie-Paule Cani, Alexis Angelidis
Pages: 673-680
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566635
We present a multi-scale algorithm for mapping a texture defined by an input image onto an arbitrary surface. It avoids the generation and storage of a new, specific texture. The idea is to progressively cover the surface by texture patches of...

Improving noise
Ken Perlin
Pages: 681-682
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566636
Two deficiencies in the original Noise algorithm are corrected: second order interpolation discontinuity and unoptimal gradient computation. With these defects corrected, Noise both looks better and runs faster. The latter change also makes it easier...

Section: Images and video

The SAGE graphics architecture
Michael Deering, David Naegle
Pages: 683-692
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566638
The Scalable, Advanced Graphics Environment (SAGE) is a new high-end, multi-chip rendering architecture. Each single SAGE board can render in excess of 80 million fully lit, textured, anti-aliased triangles per second. SAGE brings high quality...

Chromium: a stream-processing framework for interactive rendering on clusters
Greg Humphreys, Mike Houston, Ren Ng, Randall Frank, Sean Ahern, Peter D. Kirchner, James T. Klosowski
Pages: 693-702
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566639
We describe Chromium, a system for manipulating streams of graphics API commands on clusters of workstations. Chromium's stream filters can be arranged to create sort-first and sort-last parallel graphics architectures that, in many cases, support...

Ray tracing on programmable graphics hardware
Timothy J. Purcell, Ian Buck, William R. Mark, Pat Hanrahan
Pages: 703-712
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566640
Recently a breakthrough has occurred in graphics hardware: fixed function pipelines have been replaced with programmable vertex and fragment processors. In the near future, the graphics pipeline is likely to evolve into a general programmable stream...

Shader-driven compilation of rendering assets
Paul Lalonde, Eric Schenk
Pages: 713-720
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566641
Rendering performance of consumer graphics hardware benefits from pre-processing geometric data into a form targeted to the underlying API and hardware. The various elements of geometric data are then coupled with a shading program at runtime to draw...

Section: Images and video

Physically based modeling and animation of fire
Duc Quang Nguyen, Ronald Fedkiw, Henrik Wann Jensen
Pages: 721-728
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566643
We present a physically based method for modeling and animating fire. Our method is suitable for both smooth (laminar) and turbulent flames, and it can be used to animate the burning of either solid or gas fuels. We use the incompressible...

Structural modeling of flames for a production environment
Arnauld Lamorlette, Nick Foster
Pages: 729-735
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566644
In this paper we describe a system for animating flames. Stochastic models of flickering and buoyant diffusion provide realistic local appearance while physics-based wind fields and Kolmogorov noise add controllable motion and scale. Procedural...

Animation and rendering of complex water surfaces
Douglas Enright, Stephen Marschner, Ronald Fedkiw
Pages: 736-744
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566645
We present a new method for the animation and rendering of photo-realistic water effects. Our method is designed to produce visually plausible three dimensional effects, for example the pouring of water into a glass (see figure 1) and the...

Image based flow visualization
Jarke J. van Wijk
Pages: 745-754
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566646
A new method for the visualization of two-dimensional fluid flow is presented. The method is based on the advection and decay of dye. These processes are simulated by defining each frame of a flow animation as a blend between a warped version of the...

Section: Images and video

WYSIWYG NPR: drawing strokes directly on 3D models
Robert D. Kalnins, Lee Markosian, Barbara J. Meier, Michael A. Kowalski, Joseph C. Lee, Philip L. Davidson, Matthew Webb, John F. Hughes, Adam Finkelstein
Pages: 755-762
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566648
We present a system that lets a designer directly annotate a 3D model with strokes, imparting a personal aesthetic to the non-photorealistic rendering of the object. The artist chooses a "brush" style, then draws strokes over the model from one or...

Painting and rendering textures on unparameterized models
David (grue) DeBry, Jonathan Gibbs, Devorah DeLeon Petty, Nate Robins
Pages: 763-768
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566649
This paper presents a solution for texture mapping unparameterized models. The quality of a texture on a model is often limited by the model's parameterization into a 2D texture space. For models with complex topologies or complex distributions of...

Stylization and abstraction of photographs
Doug DeCarlo, Anthony Santella
Pages: 769-776
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566650
Good information design depends on clarifying the meaningful structure in an image. We describe a computational approach to stylizing and abstracting photographs that explicitly responds to this design goal. Our system transforms images into a...

Object-based image editing
William A. Barrett, Alan S. Cheney
Pages: 777-784
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566651
We introduce Object-Based Image Editing (OBIE) for real-time animation and manipulation of static digital photographs. Individual image objects (such as an arm or nose, Figure 1) are selected, scaled, stretched, bent, warped or even deleted (with...

Octree textures
David Benson, Joel Davis
Pages: 785-790
DOI: 10.1145/566654.566652
Texturing using a set of two dimensional image maps is an established and widespread practice. However, it has many limitations. Parameterizing a model in texture space can be very difficult, particularly with representations such as implicit...