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ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) - Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2014, Volume 33 Issue 4, July 2014



Section: Shape collection

Meta-representation of shape families
Noa Fish, Melinos Averkiou, Oliver van Kaick, Olga Sorkine-Hornung, Daniel Cohen-Or, Niloy J. Mitra
Article No.: 34
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601185

We introduce a meta-representation that represents the essence of a family of shapes. The meta-representation learns the configurations of shape parts that are common across the family, and encapsulates this knowledge with a system of...

Organizing heterogeneous scene collections through contextual focal points
Kai Xu, Rui Ma, Hao Zhang, Chenyang Zhu, Ariel Shamir, Daniel Cohen-Or, Hui Huang
Article No.: 35
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601109

We introduce focal points for characterizing, comparing, and organizing collections of complex and heterogeneous data and apply the concepts and algorithms developed to collections of 3D indoor scenes. We represent each scene by a graph of...

Functional map networks for analyzing and exploring large shape collections
Qixing Huang, Fan Wang, Leonidas Guibas
Article No.: 36
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601111

The construction of networks of maps among shapes in a collection enables a variety of applications in data-driven geometry processing. A key task in network construction is to make the maps consistent with each other. This consistency constraint,...

Estimating image depth using shape collections
Hao Su, Qixing Huang, Niloy J. Mitra, Yangyan Li, Leonidas Guibas
Article No.: 37
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601159

Images, while easy to acquire, view, publish, and share, they lack critical depth information. This poses a serious bottleneck for many image manipulation, editing, and retrieval tasks. In this paper we consider the problem of adding depth to an...

Section: Shape collection

Parametric wave field coding for precomputed sound propagation
Nikunj Raghuvanshi, John Snyder
Article No.: 38
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601184

The acoustic wave field in a complex scene is a chaotic 7D function of time and the positions of source and listener, making it difficult to compress and interpolate. This hampers precomputed approaches which tabulate impulse responses (IRs) to...

High-order diffraction and diffuse reflections for interactive sound propagation in large environments
Carl Schissler, Ravish Mehra, Dinesh Manocha
Article No.: 39
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601216

We present novel algorithms for modeling interactive diffuse reflections and higher-order diffraction in large-scale virtual environments. Our formulation is based on ray-based sound propagation and is directly applicable to complex geometric...

Eigenmode compression for modal sound models
Timothy R. Langlois, Steven S. An, Kelvin K. Jin, Doug L. James
Article No.: 40
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601177

We propose and evaluate a method for significantly compressing modal sound models, thereby making them far more practical for audiovisual applications. The dense eigenmode matrix, needed to compute the sound model's response to contact forces, can...

Inverse-Foley animation: synchronizing rigid-body motions to sound
Timothy R. Langlois, Doug L. James
Article No.: 41
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601178

In this paper, we introduce Inverse-Foley Animation, a technique for optimizing rigid-body animations so that contact events are synchronized with input sound events. A precomputed database of randomly sampled rigid-body contact events is...

Section: Shape collection

Controllable high-fidelity facial performance transfer
Feng Xu, Jinxiang Chai, Yilong Liu, Xin Tong
Article No.: 42
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601210

Recent technological advances in facial capture have made it possible to acquire high-fidelity 3D facial performance data with stunningly high spatial-temporal resolution. Current methods for facial expression transfer, however, are often limited...

Displaced dynamic expression regression for real-time facial tracking and animation
Chen Cao, Qiming Hou, Kun Zhou
Article No.: 43
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601204

We present a fully automatic approach to real-time facial tracking and animation with a single video camera. Our approach does not need any calibration for each individual user. It learns a generic regressor from public image datasets, which can...

Rigid stabilization of facial expressions
Thabo Beeler, Derek Bradley
Article No.: 44
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601182

Facial scanning has become the industry-standard approach for creating digital doubles in movies and video games. This involves capturing an actor while they perform different expressions that span their range of facial motion. Unfortunately, the...

Section: Shape collection

Point morphology
Stéphane Calderon, Tamy Boubekeur
Article No.: 45
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601130

We introduce a complete morphological analysis framework for 3D point clouds. Starting from an unorganized point set sampling a surface, we propose morphological operators in the form of projections, allowing to sample erosions, dilations,...

Floating scale surface reconstruction
Simon Fuhrmann, Michael Goesele
Article No.: 46
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601163

Any sampled point acquired from a real-world geometric object or scene represents a finite surface area and not just a single surface point. Samples therefore have an inherent scale, very valuable information that has been crucial for high quality...

Continuous projection for fast L1 reconstruction
Reinhold Preiner, Oliver Mattausch, Murat Arikan, Renato Pajarola, Michael Wimmer
Article No.: 47
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601172

With better and faster acquisition devices comes a demand for fast robust reconstruction algorithms, but no L1-based technique has been fast enough for online use so far. In this paper, we present a novel continuous formulation...

Flower modeling via X-ray computed tomography
Takashi Ijiri, Shin Yoshizawa, Hideo Yokota, Takeo Igarashi
Article No.: 48
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601124

This paper presents a novel three dimensional (3D) flower modeling technique that utilizes an X-ray computed tomography (CT) system and real-world flowers. Although a CT system provides volume data that captures the internal structures of flowers,...

Section: Shape collection

Generalizing locomotion style to new animals with inverse optimal regression
Kevin Wampler, Zoran Popović, Jovan Popović
Article No.: 49
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601192

We present a technique for analyzing a set of animal gaits to predict the gait of a new animal from its shape alone. This method works on a wide range of bipeds and quadrupeds, and adapts the motion style to the size and shape of the animal. We...

Learning bicycle stunts
Jie Tan, Yuting Gu, C. Karen Liu, Greg Turk
Article No.: 50
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601121

We present a general approach for simulating and controlling a human character that is riding a bicycle. The two main components of our system are offline learning and online simulation. We simulate the bicycle and the rider as an articulated...

Online motion synthesis using sequential Monte Carlo
Perttu Hämäläinen, Sebastian Eriksson, Esa Tanskanen, Ville Kyrki, Jaakko Lehtinen
Article No.: 51
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601218

We present a Model-Predictive Control (MPC) system for online synthesis of interactive and physically valid character motion. Our system enables a complex (36-DOF) 3D human character model to balance in a given pose, dodge projectiles, and...

Breathing life into shape: capturing, modeling and animating 3D human breathing
Aggeliki Tsoli, Naureen Mahmood, Michael J. Black
Article No.: 52
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601225

Modeling how the human body deforms during breathing is important for the realistic animation of lifelike 3D avatars. We learn a model of body shape deformations due to breathing for different breathing types and provide simple animation controls...

Section: Shape collection

Fast multipole representation of diffusion curves and points
Timothy Sun, Papoj Thamjaroenporn, Changxi Zheng
Article No.: 53
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601187

We propose a new algorithm for random-access evaluation of diffusion curve images (DCIs) using the fast multipole method. Unlike all previous methods, our algorithm achieves real-time performance for rasterization and...

EZ-sketching: three-level optimization for error-tolerant image tracing
Qingkun Su, Wing Ho Andy Li, Jue Wang, Hongbo Fu
Article No.: 54
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601202

We present a new image-guided drawing interface called EZ-Sketching, which uses a tracing paradigm and automatically corrects sketch lines roughly traced over an image by analyzing and utilizing the image features being traced. While...

Section: Shape collection

A constructive theory of sampling for image synthesis using reproducing Kernel bases
Christian Lessig, Mathieu Desbrun, Eugene Fiume
Article No.: 55
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601149

Sampling a scene by tracing rays and reconstructing an image from such pointwise samples is fundamental to computer graphics. To improve the efficacy of these computations, we propose an alternative theory of sampling. In contrast to traditional...

Fast tile-based adaptive sampling with user-specified Fourier spectra
Florent Wachtel, Adrien Pilleboue, David Coeurjolly, Katherine Breeden, Gurprit Singh, Gaël Cathelin, Fernando de Goes, Mathieu Desbrun, Victor Ostromoukhov
Article No.: 56
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601107

We introduce a fast tile-based method for adaptive two-dimensional sampling with user-specified spectral properties. At the core of our approach is a deterministic, hierarchical construction of self-similar, equi-area, tri-hex tiles whose...

Factored axis-aligned filtering for rendering multiple distribution effects
Soham Uday Mehta, JiaXian Yao, Ravi Ramamoorthi, Fredo Durand
Article No.: 57
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601113

Monte Carlo (MC) ray-tracing for photo-realistic rendering often requires hours to render a single image due to the large sampling rates needed for convergence. Previous methods have attempted to filter sparsely sampled MC renders but these...

Section: Shape collection

A compressive light field projection system
Matthew Hirsch, Gordon Wetzstein, Ramesh Raskar
Article No.: 58
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601144

For about a century, researchers and experimentalists have strived to bring glasses-free 3D experiences to the big screen. Much progress has been made and light field projection systems are now commercially available. Unfortunately, available...

Eyeglasses-free display: towards correcting visual aberrations with computational light field displays
Fu-Chung Huang, Gordon Wetzstein, Brian A. Barsky, Ramesh Raskar
Article No.: 59
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601122

Millions of people worldwide need glasses or contact lenses to see or read properly. We introduce a computational display technology that predistorts the presented content for an observer, so that the target image is perceived without the need for...

Cascaded displays: spatiotemporal superresolution using offset pixel layers
Felix Heide, Douglas Lanman, Dikpal Reddy, Jan Kautz, Kari Pulli, David Luebke
Article No.: 60
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601120

We demonstrate that layered spatial light modulators (SLMs), subject to fixed lateral displacements and refreshed at staggered intervals, can synthesize images with greater spatiotemporal resolution than that afforded by any single SLM used in...

A reflectance display
Daniel Glasner, Todd Zickler, Anat Levin
Article No.: 61
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601140

We present a reflectance display: a dynamic digital display capable of showing images and videos with spatially-varying, user-defined reflectance functions. Our display is passive: it operates by phase-modulation of reflected light. As...

Section: Shape collection

Design and fabrication by example
Adriana Schulz, Ariel Shamir, David I. W. Levin, Pitchaya Sitthi-amorn, Wojciech Matusik
Article No.: 62
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601127

We propose a data-driven method for designing 3D models that can be fabricated. First, our approach converts a collection of expert-created designs to a dataset of parameterized design templates that includes all information necessary for...

Designing inflatable structures
Mélina Skouras, Bernhard Thomaszewski, Peter Kaufmann, Akash Garg, Bernd Bickel, Eitan Grinspun, Markus Gross
Article No.: 63
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601166

We propose an interactive, optimization-in-the-loop tool for designing inflatable structures. Given a target shape, the user draws a network of seams defining desired segment boundaries in 3D. Our method computes optimally-shaped flat panels for...

Computational design of linkage-based characters
Bernhard Thomaszewski, Stelian Coros, Damien Gauge, Vittorio Megaro, Eitan Grinspun, Markus Gross
Article No.: 64
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601143

We present a design system for linkage-based characters, combining form and function in an aesthetically-pleasing manner. Linkage-based character design exhibits a mix of discrete and continuous problems, making for a highly unintuitive design...

Pteromys: interactive design and optimization of free-formed free-flight model airplanes
Nobuyuki Umetani, Yuki Koyama, Ryan Schmidt, Takeo Igarashi
Article No.: 65
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601129

This paper introduces novel interactive techniques for designing original hand-launched free-flight glider airplanes which can actually fly. The aerodynamic properties of a glider aircraft depend on their shape, imposing significant design...

Wire mesh design
Akash Garg, Andrew O. Sageman-Furnas, Bailin Deng, Yonghao Yue, Eitan Grinspun, Mark Pauly, Max Wardetzky
Article No.: 66
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601106

We present a computational approach for designing wire meshes, i.e., freeform surfaces composed of woven wires arranged in a regular grid. To facilitate shape exploration, we map material properties of wire meshes to the geometric model of...

Section: Shape collection

Earth mover's distances on discrete surfaces
Justin Solomon, Raif Rustamov, Leonidas Guibas, Adrian Butscher
Article No.: 67
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601175

We introduce a novel method for computing the earth mover's distance (EMD) between probability distributions on a discrete surface. Rather than using a large linear program with a quadratic number of variables, we apply the theory of optimal...

Controlling singular values with semidefinite programming
Shahar Z. Kovalsky, Noam Aigerman, Ronen Basri, Yaron Lipman
Article No.: 68
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601142

Controlling the singular values of n-dimensional matrices is often required in geometric algorithms in graphics and engineering. This paper introduces a convex framework for problems that involve singular values. Specifically, it enables...

Lifted bijections for low distortion surface mappings
Noam Aigerman, Roi Poranne, Yaron Lipman
Article No.: 69
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601158

This paper introduces an algorithm for computing low-distortion, bijective mappings between surface meshes. The algorithm recieves as input a coarse set of corresponding pairs of points on the two surfaces, and follows three steps: (i) cutting the...

Form-finding with polyhedral meshes made simple
Chengcheng Tang, Xiang Sun, Alexandra Gomes, Johannes Wallner, Helmut Pottmann
Article No.: 70
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601213

We solve the form-finding problem for polyhedral meshes in a way which combines form, function and fabrication; taking care of user-specified constraints like boundary interpolation, planarity of faces, statics, panel size and shape, enclosed...

Section: Shape collection

Boxelization: folding 3D objects into boxes
Yahan Zhou, Shinjiro Sueda, Wojciech Matusik, Ariel Shamir
Article No.: 71
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601173

We present a method for transforming a 3D object into a cube or a box using a continuous folding sequence. Our method produces a single, connected object that can be physically fabricated and folded from one shape to the other. We segment the...

The Connect-The-Dots family of puzzles: design and automatic generation
Maarten Löffler, Mira Kaiser, Tim van Kapel, Gerwin Klappe, Marc van Kreveld, Frank Staals
Article No.: 72
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601224

In this paper we introduce several innovative variants on the classic Connect-The-Dots puzzle. We study the underlying geometric principles and investigate methods for the automatic generation of high-quality puzzles from line drawings.

...

Self-refining games using player analytics
Matt Stanton, Ben Humberston, Brandon Kase, James F. O'Brien, Kayvon Fatahalian, Adrien Treuille
Article No.: 73
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601196

Data-driven simulation demands good training data drawn from a vast space of possible simulations. While fully sampling these large spaces is infeasible, we observe that in practical applications, such as gameplay, users explore only a vanishingly...

High-contrast computational caustic design
Yuliy Schwartzburg, Romain Testuz, Andrea Tagliasacchi, Mark Pauly
Article No.: 74
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601200

We present a new algorithm for computational caustic design. Our algorithm solves for the shape of a transparent object such that the refracted light paints a desired caustic image on a receiver screen. We introduce an optimal transport...

Section: Shape collection

Locally injective parametrization with arbitrary fixed boundaries
Ofir Weber, Denis Zorin
Article No.: 75
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601227

We present an algorithm for mapping a triangle mesh, which is homeomorphic to a disk, to a planar domain with arbitrary fixed boundaries. The algorithm is guaranteed to produce a globally bijective map when the boundary is fixed to a shape that...

Provably good planar mappings
Roi Poranne, Yaron Lipman
Article No.: 76
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601123

The problem of planar mapping and deformation is central in computer graphics. This paper presents a framework for adapting general, smooth, function bases for building provably good planar mappings. The term "good" in this context means the map...

Section: Shape collection

VideoSnapping: interactive synchronization of multiple videos
Oliver Wang, Christopher Schroers, Henning Zimmer, Markus Gross, Alexander Sorkine-Hornung
Article No.: 77
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601208

Aligning video is a fundamental task in computer graphics and vision, required for a wide range of applications. We present an interactive method for computing optimal nonlinear temporal video alignments of an arbitrary number of videos. We...

First-person hyper-lapse videos
Johannes Kopf, Michael F. Cohen, Richard Szeliski
Article No.: 78
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601195

We present a method for converting first-person videos, for example, captured with a helmet camera during activities such as rock climbing or bicycling, into hyper-lapse videos, i.e., time-lapse videos with a smoothly moving camera. At high...

The visual microphone: passive recovery of sound from video
Abe Davis, Michael Rubinstein, Neal Wadhwa, Gautham J. Mysore, Frédo Durand, William T. Freeman
Article No.: 79
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601119

When sound hits an object, it causes small vibrations of the object's surface. We show how, using only high-speed video of the object, we can extract those minute vibrations and partially recover the sound that produced them, allowing us to turn...

Intrinsic video and applications
Genzhi Ye, Elena Garces, Yebin Liu, Qionghai Dai, Diego Gutierrez
Article No.: 80
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601135

We present a method to decompose a video into its intrinsic components of reflectance and shading, plus a number of related example applications in video editing such as segmentation, stylization, material editing, recolorization and color...

Automatic editing of footage from multiple social cameras
Ido Arev, Hyun Soo Park, Yaser Sheikh, Jessica Hodgins, Ariel Shamir
Article No.: 81
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601198

We present an approach that takes multiple videos captured by social cameras---cameras that are carried or worn by members of the group involved in an activity---and produces a coherent "cut" video of the activity. Footage from social...

Section: Shape collection

Tangible and modular input device for character articulation
Alec Jacobson, Daniele Panozzo, Oliver Glauser, Cédric Pradalier, Otmar Hilliges, Olga Sorkine-Hornung
Article No.: 82
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601112

Articulation of 3D characters requires control over many degrees of freedom: a difficult task with standard 2D interfaces. We present a tangible input device composed of interchangeable, hot-pluggable parts. Embedded sensors measure the device's...

Interactive manipulation of large-scale crowd animation
Jongmin Kim, Yeongho Seol, Taesoo Kwon, Jehee Lee
Article No.: 83
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601170

Editing large-scale crowd animation is a daunting task due to the lack of an efficient manipulation method. This paper presents a novel cage-based editing method for large-scale crowd animation. The cage encloses animated characters and supports...

Robust and accurate skeletal rigging from mesh sequences
Binh Huy Le, Zhigang Deng
Article No.: 84
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601161

We introduce an example-based rigging approach to automatically generate linear blend skinning models with skeletal structure. Based on a set of example poses, our approach can output its skeleton, joint positions, linear blend skinning weights,...

Section: Shape collection

Pixie dust: graphics generated by levitated and animated objects in computational acoustic-potential field
Yoichi Ochiai, Takayuki Hoshi, Jun Rekimoto
Article No.: 85
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601118

We propose a novel graphics system based on the expansion of 3D acoustic-manipulation technology. In conventional research on acoustic levitation, small objects are trapped in the acoustic beams of standing waves. We expand this method by changing...

Learning to be a depth camera for close-range human capture and interaction
Sean Ryan Fanello, Cem Keskin, Shahram Izadi, Pushmeet Kohli, David Kim, David Sweeney, Antonio Criminisi, Jamie Shotton, Sing Bing Kang, Tim Paek
Article No.: 86
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601223

We present a machine learning technique for estimating absolute, per-pixel depth using any conventional monocular 2D camera, with minor hardware modifications. Our approach targets close-range human capture and interaction where dense 3D...

Temporal frequency probing for 5D transient analysis of global light transport
Matthew O'Toole, Felix Heide, Lei Xiao, Matthias B. Hullin, Wolfgang Heidrich, Kiriakos N. Kutulakos
Article No.: 87
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601103

We analyze light propagation in an unknown scene using projectors and cameras that operate at transient timescales. In this new photography regime, the projector emits a spatio-temporal 3D signal and the camera receives a transformed version of...

Compressive epsilon photography for post-capture control in digital imaging
Atsushi Ito, Salil Tambe, Kaushik Mitra, Aswin C. Sankaranarayanan, Ashok Veeraraghavan
Article No.: 88
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601207

A traditional camera requires the photographer to select the many parameters at capture time. While advances in light field photography have enabled post-capture control of focus and perspective, they suffer from several limitations including...

Pinlight displays: wide field of view augmented reality eyeglasses using defocused point light sources
Andrew Maimone, Douglas Lanman, Kishore Rathinavel, Kurtis Keller, David Luebke, Henry Fuchs
Article No.: 89
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601141

We present a novel design for an optical see-through augmented reality display that offers a wide field of view and supports a compact form factor approaching ordinary eyeglasses. Instead of conventional optics, our design uses only two simple...

Section: Shape collection

DecoBrush: drawing structured decorative patterns by example
Jingwan Lu, Connelly Barnes, Connie Wan, Paul Asente, Radomir Mech, Adam Finkelstein
Article No.: 90
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601190

Structured decorative patterns are common ornamentations in a variety of media like books, web pages, greeting cards and interior design. Creating such art from scratch using conventional software is time consuming for experts and daunting for...

Learning a manifold of fonts
Neill D. F. Campbell, Jan Kautz
Article No.: 91
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601212

The design and manipulation of typefaces and fonts is an area requiring substantial expertise; it can take many years of study to become a proficient typographer. At the same time, the use of typefaces is ubiquitous; there are many users who,...

Exploratory font selection using crowdsourced attributes
Peter O'Donovan, Jānis Lībeks, Aseem Agarwala, Aaron Hertzmann
Article No.: 92
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601110

This paper presents interfaces for exploring large collections of fonts for design tasks. Existing interfaces typically list fonts in a long, alphabetically-sorted menu that can be challenging and frustrating to explore. We instead propose three...

A similarity measure for illustration style
Elena Garces, Aseem Agarwala, Diego Gutierrez, Aaron Hertzmann
Article No.: 93
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601131

This paper presents a method for measuring the similarity in style between two pieces of vector art, independent of content. Similarity is measured by the differences between four types of features: color, shading, texture, and stroke. Feature...

Look over here: attention-directing composition of manga elements
Ying Cao, Rynson W. H. Lau, Antoni B. Chan
Article No.: 94
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601183

Picture subjects and text balloons are basic elements in comics, working together to propel the story forward. Japanese comics artists often leverage a carefully designed composition of subjects and balloons (generally referred to as panel...

Section: Shape collection

An asymptotic numerical method for inverse elastic shape design
Xiang Chen, Changxi Zheng, Weiwei Xu, Kun Zhou
Article No.: 95
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601189

Inverse shape design for elastic objects greatly eases the design efforts by letting users focus on desired target shapes without thinking about elastic deformations. Solving this problem using classic iterative methods (e.g., Newton-Raphson...

Spin-it: optimizing moment of inertia for spinnable objects
Moritz Bächer, Emily Whiting, Bernd Bickel, Olga Sorkine-Hornung
Article No.: 96
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601157

Spinning tops and yo-yos have long fascinated cultures around the world with their unexpected, graceful motions that seemingly elude gravity. We present an algorithm to generate designs for spinning objects by optimizing rotational dynamics...

Build-to-last: strength to weight 3D printed objects
Lin Lu, Andrei Sharf, Haisen Zhao, Yuan Wei, Qingnan Fan, Xuelin Chen, Yann Savoye, Changhe Tu, Daniel Cohen-Or, Baoquan Chen
Article No.: 97
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601168

The emergence of low-cost 3D printers steers the investigation of new geometric problems that control the quality of the fabricated object. In this paper, we present a method to reduce the material cost and weight of a given object while providing...

Bridging the gap: automated steady scaffoldings for 3D printing
Jérémie Dumas, Jean Hergel, Sylvain Lefebvre
Article No.: 98
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601153

Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) is the process of 3D printing objects from melted plastic filament. The hot plastic exits a nozzle and fuses with the part just below, adding a layer of material to the object being formed. However, filament can...

Section: Shape collection

Computing layouts with deformable templates
Chi-Han Peng, Yong-Liang Yang, Peter Wonka
Article No.: 99
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601164

In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized...

Section: Shape collection

Multiplexed metropolis light transport
Toshiya Hachisuka, Anton S. Kaplanyan, Carsten Dachsbacher
Article No.: 100
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601138

Global illumination algorithms using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling are well-known for their efficiency in scenes with complex light transport. Samples in such algorithms are generated as a history of Markov chain states so that they are...

On-line learning of parametric mixture models for light transport simulation
Jiří Vorba, Ondřej Karlík, Martin Šik, Tobias Ritschel, Jaroslav Křivánek
Article No.: 101
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601203

Monte Carlo techniques for light transport simulation rely on importance sampling when constructing light transport paths. Previous work has shown that suitable sampling distributions can be recovered from particles distributed in the scene prior...

The natural-constraint representation of the path space for efficient light transport simulation
Anton S. Kaplanyan, Johannes Hanika, Carsten Dachsbacher
Article No.: 102
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601108

The path integral formulation of light transport is the basis for (Markov chain) Monte Carlo global illumination methods. In this paper we present half vector space light transport (HSLT), a novel approach to sampling and integrating light...

Unifying points, beams, and paths in volumetric light transport simulation
Jaroslav Křivánek, Iliyan Georgiev, Toshiya Hachisuka, Petr Vévoda, Martin Šik, Derek Nowrouzezahrai, Wojciech Jarosz
Article No.: 103
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601219

Efficiently computing light transport in participating media in a manner that is robust to variations in media density, scattering albedo, and anisotropy is a difficult and important problem in realistic image synthesis. While many specialized...

High-order similarity relations in radiative transfer
Shuang Zhao, Ravi Ramamoorthi, Kavita Bala
Article No.: 104
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601104

Radiative transfer equations (RTEs) with different scattering parameters can lead to identical solution radiance fields. Similarity theory studies this effect by introducing a hierarchy of equivalence relations called "similarity relations"....

Section: Shape collection

Subspace clothing simulation using adaptive bases
Fabian Hahn, Bernhard Thomaszewski, Stelian Coros, Robert W. Sumner, Forrester Cole, Mark Meyer, Tony DeRose, Markus Gross
Article No.: 105
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601160

We present a new approach to clothing simulation using low-dimensional linear subspaces with temporally adaptive bases. Our method exploits full-space simulation training data in order to construct a pool of low-dimensional bases distributed...

Simulating articulated subspace self-contact
Yun Teng, Miguel A. Otaduy, Theodore Kim
Article No.: 106
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601181

We present an efficient new subspace method for simulating the self-contact of articulated deformable bodies, such as characters. Self-contact is highly structured in this setting, as the limited space of possible articulations produces a...

Sensitivity-optimized rigging for example-based real-time clothing synthesis
Weiwei Xu, Nobuyuki Umentani, Qianwen Chao, Jie Mao, Xiaogang Jin, Xin Tong
Article No.: 107
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601136

We present a real-time solution for generating detailed clothing deformations from pre-computed clothing shape examples. Given an input pose, it synthesizes a clothing deformation by blending skinned clothing deformations of nearby examples...

Space-time editing of elastic motion through material optimization and reduction
Siwang Li, Jin Huang, Fernando de Goes, Xiaogang Jin, Hujun Bao, Mathieu Desbrun
Article No.: 108
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601217

We present a novel method for elastic animation editing with space-time constraints. In a sharp departure from previous approaches, we not only optimize control forces added to a linearized dynamic model, but also optimize material properties to...

Animating deformable objects using sparse spacetime constraints
Christian Schulz, Christoph von Tycowicz, Hans-Peter Seidel, Klaus Hildebrandt
Article No.: 109
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601156

We propose a scheme for animating deformable objects based on spacetime optimization. The main feature is that it robustly and within a few seconds generates interesting motion from a sparse set of spacetime constraints. Providing only partial (as...

Section: Shape collection

Adaptive tearing and cracking of thin sheets
Tobias Pfaff, Rahul Narain, Juan Miguel de Joya, James F. O'Brien
Article No.: 110
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601132

This paper presents a method for adaptive fracture propagation in thin sheets. A high-quality triangle mesh is dynamically restructured to adaptively maintain detail wherever it is required by the simulation. These requirements include refining...

Codimensional surface tension flow on simplicial complexes
Bo Zhu, Ed Quigley, Matthew Cong, Justin Solomon, Ronald Fedkiw
Article No.: 111
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601201

Many visually interesting natural phenomena are characterized by thin liquid sheets, long filaments, and droplets. We present a new Lagrangian-based numerical method to simulate these codimensional surface tension driven phenomena using...

Multimaterial mesh-based surface tracking
Fang Da, Christopher Batty, Eitan Grinspun
Article No.: 112
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601146

We present a triangle mesh-based technique for tracking the evolution of three-dimensional multimaterial interfaces undergoing complex deformations. It is the first non-manifold triangle mesh tracking method to simultaneously maintain...

Physics-inspired adaptive fracture refinement
Zhili Chen, Miaojun Yao, Renguo Feng, Huamin Wang
Article No.: 113
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601115

Physically based animation of detailed fracture effects is not only computationally expensive, but also difficult to implement due to numerical instability. In this paper, we propose a physics-inspired approach to enrich low-resolution fracture...

Section: Shape collection

genBRDF: discovering new analytic BRDFs with genetic programming
Adam Brady, Jason Lawrence, Pieter Peers, Westley Weimer
Article No.: 114
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601193

We present a framework for learning new analytic BRDF models through Genetic Programming that we call genBRDF. This approach to reflectance modeling can be seen as an extension of traditional methods that rely either on a phenomenological or...

Discrete stochastic microfacet models
Wenzel Jakob, Miloš Hašan, Ling-Qi Yan, Jason Lawrence, Ravi Ramamoorthi, Steve Marschner
Article No.: 115
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601186

This paper investigates rendering glittery surfaces, ones which exhibit shifting random patterns of glints as the surface or viewer moves. It applies both to dramatically glittery surfaces that contain mirror-like flakes and also to rough surfaces...

Rendering glints on high-resolution normal-mapped specular surfaces
Ling-Qi Yan, Miloš Hašan, Wenzel Jakob, Jason Lawrence, Steve Marschner, Ravi Ramamoorthi
Article No.: 116
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601155

Complex specular surfaces under sharp point lighting show a fascinating glinty appearance, but rendering it is an unsolved problem. Using Monte Carlo pixel sampling for this purpose is impractical: the energy is concentrated in tiny highlights...

Reflectance scanning: estimating shading frame and BRDF with generalized linear light sources
Guojun Chen, Yue Dong, Pieter Peers, Jiawan Zhang, Xin Tong
Article No.: 117
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601180

We present a generalized linear light source solution to estimate both the local shading frame and anisotropic surface reflectance of a planar spatially varying material sample.

We generalize linear light source reflectometry by modulating...

A comprehensive framework for rendering layered materials
Wenzel Jakob, Eugene d'Eon, Otto Jakob, Steve Marschner
Article No.: 118
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601139

We present a general and practical method for computing BSDFs of layered materials. Its ingredients are transport-theoretical models of isotropic or anisotropic scattering layers and smooth or rough boundaries of conductors and dielectrics....

Section: Shape collection

Relating shapes via geometric symmetries and regularities
Art Tevs, Qixing Huang, Michael Wand, Hans-Peter Seidel, Leonidas Guibas
Article No.: 119
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601220

In this paper we address the problem of finding correspondences between related shapes of widely varying geometry. We propose a new method based on the observation that symmetry and regularity in shapes is often associated with their function....

Shape2Pose: human-centric shape analysis
Vladimir G. Kim, Siddhartha Chaudhuri, Leonidas Guibas, Thomas Funkhouser
Article No.: 120
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601117

As 3D acquisition devices and modeling tools become widely available there is a growing need for automatic algorithms that analyze the semantics and functionality of digitized shapes. Most recent research has focused on analyzing geometric...

Inverse procedural modeling of facade layouts
Fuzhang Wu, Dong-Ming Yan, Weiming Dong, Xiaopeng Zhang, Peter Wonka
Article No.: 121
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601162

In this paper, we address the following research problem: How can we generate a meaningful split grammar that explains a given facade layout? To evaluate if a grammar is meaningful, we propose a cost function based on the description length and...

Section: Shape collection

Defending continuous collision detection against errors
Huamin Wang
Article No.: 122
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601114

Numerical errors and rounding errors in continuous collision detection (CCD) can easily cause collision detection failures if they are not handled properly. A simple and effective approach is to use error tolerances, as shown in many existing CCD...

Adaptive nonlinearity for collisions in complex rod assemblies
Danny M. Kaufman, Rasmus Tamstorf, Breannan Smith, Jean-Marie Aubry, Eitan Grinspun
Article No.: 123
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601100

We develop an algorithm for the efficient and stable simulation of large-scale elastic rod assemblies. We observe that the time-integration step is severely restricted by a strong nonlinearity in the response of stretching modes to transversal...

A reduced model for interactive hairs
Menglei Chai, Changxi Zheng, Kun Zhou
Article No.: 124
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601211

Realistic hair animation is a crucial component in depicting virtual characters in interactive applications. While much progress has been made in high-quality hair simulation, the overwhelming computation cost hinders similar fidelity in realtime...

Capturing and stylizing hair for 3D fabrication
Jose I. Echevarria, Derek Bradley, Diego Gutierrez, Thabo Beeler
Article No.: 125
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601133

Recently, we have seen a growing trend in the design and fabrication of personalized figurines, created by scanning real people and then physically reproducing miniature statues with 3D printers. This is currently a hot topic both in academia and...

Robust hair capture using simulated examples
Liwen Hu, Chongyang Ma, Linjie Luo, Hao Li
Article No.: 126
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601194

We introduce a data-driven hair capture framework based on example strands generated through hair simulation. Our method can robustly reconstruct faithful 3D hair models from unprocessed input point clouds with large amounts of outliers. Current...

Section: Shape collection

3D object manipulation in a single photograph using stock 3D models
Natasha Kholgade, Tomas Simon, Alexei Efros, Yaser Sheikh
Article No.: 127
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601209

Photo-editing software restricts the control of objects in a photograph to the 2D image plane. We present a method that enables users to perform the full range of 3D manipulations, including scaling, rotation, translation, and nonrigid...

Bilateral texture filtering
Hojin Cho, Hyunjoon Lee, Henry Kang, Seungyong Lee
Article No.: 128
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601188

This paper presents a novel structure-preserving image decomposition operator called bilateral texture filter. As a simple modification of the original bilateral filter [Tomasi and Manduchi 1998], it performs local patch-based analysis of...

Image completion using planar structure guidance
Jia-Bin Huang, Sing Bing Kang, Narendra Ahuja, Johannes Kopf
Article No.: 129
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601205

We propose a method for automatically guiding patch-based image completion using mid-level structural cues. Our method first estimates planar projection parameters, softly segments the known region into planes, and discovers translational...

Section: Shape collection

PushPull++
Markus Lipp, Peter Wonka, Pascal Müller
Article No.: 130
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601197

PushPull tools are implemented in most commercial 3D modeling suites. Their purpose is to intuitively transform a face, edge, or vertex, and then to adapt the polygonal mesh locally. However, previous approaches have limitations: Some allow...

True2Form: 3D curve networks from 2D sketches via selective regularization
Baoxuan Xu, William Chang, Alla Sheffer, Adrien Bousseau, James McCrae, Karan Singh
Article No.: 131
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601128

True2Form is a sketch-based modeling system that reconstructs 3D curves from typical design sketches. Our approach to infer 3D form from 2D drawings is a novel mathematical framework of insights derived from perception and design...

Interactive shape modeling using a skeleton-mesh co-representation
J. Andreas Bærentzen, Rinat Abdrashitov, Karan Singh
Article No.: 132
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601226

We introduce the Polar-Annular Mesh representation (PAM). A PAM is a mesh-skeleton co-representation designed for the modeling of 3D organic, articulated shapes. A PAM represents a manifold mesh as a partition of polar (triangle fans) and annular...

Vector graphics complexes
Boris Dalstein, Rémi Ronfard, Michiel van de Panne
Article No.: 133
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601169

Basic topological modeling, such as the ability to have several faces share a common edge, has been largely absent from vector graphics. We introduce the vector graphics complex (VGC) as a simple data structure to support fundamental topological...

Section: Shape collection

Frame fields: anisotropic and non-orthogonal cross fields
Daniele Panozzo, Enrico Puppo, Marco Tarini, Olga Sorkine-Hornung
Article No.: 134
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601179

We introduce frame fields, which are a non-orthogonal and non-unit-length generalization of cross fields. Frame fields represent smoothly varying linear transformations on tangent spaces of a surface. We propose an algorithm to create discrete,...

Robust field-aligned global parametrization
Ashish Myles, Nico Pietroni, Denis Zorin
Article No.: 135
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601154

We present a robust method for computing locally bijective global parametrizations aligned with a given cross-field. The singularities of the parametrization in general agree with singularities of the field, except in a small number of cases when...

Section: Shape collection

Detailed water with coarse grids: combining surface meshes and adaptive discontinuous Galerkin
Essex Edwards, Robert Bridson
Article No.: 136
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601167

We present a new adaptive fluid simulation method that captures a high resolution surface with precise dynamics, without an inefficient fine discretization of the entire fluid volume. Prior adaptive methods using octrees or unstructured meshes...

Blending liquids
Karthik Raveendran, Chris Wojtan, Nils Thuerey, Greg Turk
Article No.: 137
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601126

We present a method for smoothly blending between existing liquid animations. We introduce a semi-automatic method for matching two existing liquid animations, which we use to create new fluid motion that plausibly interpolates the input. Our...

Augmented MPM for phase-change and varied materials
Alexey Stomakhin, Craig Schroeder, Chenfanfu Jiang, Lawrence Chai, Joseph Teran, Andrew Selle
Article No.: 138
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601176

In this paper, we introduce a novel material point method for heat transport, melting and solidifying materials. This brings a wider range of material behaviors into reach of the already versatile material point method. This is in contrast to...

From capture to simulation: connecting forward and inverse problems in fluids
James Gregson, Ivo Ihrke, Nils Thuerey, Wolfgang Heidrich
Article No.: 139
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601147

We explore the connection between fluid capture, simulation and proximal methods, a class of algorithms commonly used for inverse problems in image processing and computer vision. Our key finding is that the proximal operator constraining fluid...

Smoke rings from smoke
Steffen Weißmann, Ulrich Pinkall, Peter Schröder
Article No.: 140
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601171

We give an algorithm which extracts vortex filaments ("smoke rings") from a given 3D velocity field. Given a filament strength h > 0, an optimal number of vortex filaments, together with their extent and placement, is given by the zero...

Section: Shape collection

AMFS: adaptive multi-frequency shading for future graphics processors
Petrik Clarberg, Robert Toth, Jon Hasselgren, Jim Nilsson, Tomas Akenine-Möller
Article No.: 141
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601214

We propose a powerful hardware architecture for pixel shading, which enables flexible control of shading rates and automatic shading reuse between triangles in tessellated primitives. The main goal is efficient pixel shading for moderately to...

Extending the graphics pipeline with adaptive, multi-rate shading
Yong He, Yan Gu, Kayvon Fatahalian
Article No.: 142
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601105

Due to complex shaders and high-resolution displays (particularly on mobile graphics platforms), fragment shading often dominates the cost of rendering in games. To improve the efficiency of shading on GPUs, we extend the graphics pipeline to...

Embree: a kernel framework for efficient CPU ray tracing
Ingo Wald, Sven Woop, Carsten Benthin, Gregory S. Johnson, Manfred Ernst
Article No.: 143
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601199

We describe Embree, an open source ray tracing framework for x86 CPUs. Embree is explicitly designed to achieve high performance in professional rendering environments in which complex geometry and incoherent ray distributions are common. Embree...

Darkroom: compiling high-level image processing code into hardware pipelines
James Hegarty, John Brunhaver, Zachary DeVito, Jonathan Ragan-Kelley, Noy Cohen, Steven Bell, Artem Vasilyev, Mark Horowitz, Pat Hanrahan
Article No.: 144
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601174

Specialized image signal processors (ISPs) exploit the structure of image processing pipelines to minimize memory bandwidth using the architectural pattern of line-buffering, where all intermediate data between each stage is stored in small...

Section: Shape collection

Modeling and optimizing eye vergence response to stereoscopic cuts
Krzysztof Templin, Piotr Didyk, Karol Myszkowski, Mohamed M. Hefeeda, Hans-Peter Seidel, Wojciech Matusik
Article No.: 145
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601148

Sudden temporal depth changes, such as cuts that are introduced by video edits, can significantly degrade the quality of stereoscopic content. Since usually not encountered in the real world, they are very challenging for the audience. This is...

How do people edit light fields?
Adrian Jarabo, Belen Masia, Adrien Bousseau, Fabio Pellacini, Diego Gutierrez
Article No.: 146
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601125

We present a thorough study to evaluate different light field editing interfaces, tools and workflows from a user perspective. This is of special relevance given the multidimensional nature of light fields, which may make common image editing...

Simulating and compensating changes in appearance between day and night vision
Robert Wanat, Rafał K. Mantiuk
Article No.: 147
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601150

The same physical scene seen in bright sunlight and in dusky conditions does not appear identical to the human eye. Similarly, images shown on an 8000 cd/m2 high-dynamic-range (HDR) display and in a 50 cd/m2 peak luminance...

Style transfer for headshot portraits
YiChang Shih, Sylvain Paris, Connelly Barnes, William T. Freeman, Frédo Durand
Article No.: 148
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601137

Headshot portraits are a popular subject in photography but to achieve a compelling visual style requires advanced skills that a casual photographer will not have. Further, algorithms that automate or assist the stylization of generic photographs...

Transient attributes for high-level understanding and editing of outdoor scenes
Pierre-Yves Laffont, Zhile Ren, Xiaofeng Tao, Chao Qian, James Hays
Article No.: 149
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601101

We live in a dynamic visual world where the appearance of scenes changes dramatically from hour to hour or season to season. In this work we study "transient scene attributes" -- high level properties which affect scene appearance, such as "snow",...

Section: Shape collection

Compact precomputed voxelized shadows
Erik Sintorn, Viktor Kämpe, Ola Olsson, Ulf Assarsson
Article No.: 150
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601221

Producing high-quality shadows in large environments is an important and challenging problem for real-time applications such as games. We propose a novel data structure for precomputed shadows, which enables high-quality filtered shadows to be...

Dynamic ray stream traversal
Rasmus Barringer, Tomas Akenine-Möller
Article No.: 151
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601222

While each new generation of processors gets larger caches and more compute power, external memory bandwidth capabilities increase at a much lower pace. Additionally, processors are equipped with wide vector units that require low instruction...

Section: Shape collection

Active volumetric musculoskeletal systems
Ye Fan, Joshua Litven, Dinesh K. Pai
Article No.: 152
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601215

We introduce a new framework for simulating the dynamics of musculoskeletal systems, with volumetric muscles in close contact and a novel data-driven muscle activation model. Muscles are simulated using an Eulerian-on-Lagrangian discretization...

Unified particle physics for real-time applications
Miles Macklin, Matthias Müller, Nuttapong Chentanez, Tae-Yong Kim
Article No.: 153
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601152

We present a unified dynamics framework for real-time visual effects. Using particles connected by constraints as our fundamental building block allows us to treat contact and collisions in a unified manner, and we show how this representation is...

Projective dynamics: fusing constraint projections for fast simulation
Sofien Bouaziz, Sebastian Martin, Tiantian Liu, Ladislav Kavan, Mark Pauly
Article No.: 154
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601116

We present a new method for implicit time integration of physical systems. Our approach builds a bridge between nodal Finite Element methods and Position Based Dynamics, leading to a simple, efficient, robust, yet accurate solver that supports...

Section: Shape collection

Color map optimization for 3D reconstruction with consumer depth cameras
Qian-Yi Zhou, Vladlen Koltun
Article No.: 155
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601134

We present a global optimization approach for mapping color images onto geometric reconstructions. Range and color videos produced by consumer-grade RGB-D cameras suffer from noise and optical distortions, which impede accurate mapping of the...

Real-time non-rigid reconstruction using an RGB-D camera
Michael Zollhöfer, Matthias Nießner, Shahram Izadi, Christoph Rehmann, Christopher Zach, Matthew Fisher, Chenglei Wu, Andrew Fitzgibbon, Charles Loop, Christian Theobalt, Marc Stamminger
Article No.: 156
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601165

We present a combined hardware and software solution for markerless reconstruction of non-rigidly deforming physical objects with arbitrary shape in real-time. Our system uses a single self-contained stereo camera unit built from...

Proactive 3D scanning of inaccessible parts
Feilong Yan, Andrei Sharf, Wenzhen Lin, Hui Huang, Baoquan Chen
Article No.: 157
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601191

The evolution of 3D scanning technologies have revolutionized the way real-world object are digitally acquired. Nowadays, high-definition and high-speed scanners can capture even large scale scenes with very high accuracy. Nevertheless, the...

Section: Shape collection

Topology-varying 3D shape creation via structural blending
Ibraheem Alhashim, Honghua Li, Kai Xu, Junjie Cao, Rui Ma, Hao Zhang
Article No.: 158
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601102

We introduce an algorithm for generating novel 3D models via topology-varying shape blending. Given a source and a target shape, our method blends them topologically and geometrically, producing continuous series of in-betweens as new shape...

Section: Shape collection

Intrinsic images in the wild
Sean Bell, Kavita Bala, Noah Snavely
Article No.: 159
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601206

Intrinsic image decomposition separates an image into a reflectance layer and a shading layer. Automatic intrinsic image decomposition remains a significant challenge, particularly for real-world scenes. Advances on this longstanding problem have...

AverageExplorer: interactive exploration and alignment of visual data collections
Jun-Yan Zhu, Yong Jae Lee, Alexei A. Efros
Article No.: 160
DOI: 10.1145/2601097.2601145

This paper proposes an interactive framework that allows a user to rapidly explore and visualize a large image collection using the medium of average images. Average images have been gaining popularity as means of artistic expression and...