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SIGGRAPH '07: ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 papers



Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Image deblurring with blurred/noisy image pairs
Lu Yuan, Jian Sun, Long Quan, Heung-Yeung Shum
Article No.: 1
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276379

Taking satisfactory photos under dim lighting conditions using a hand-held camera is challenging. If the camera is set to a long exposure time, the image is blurred due to camera shake. On the other hand, the image is dark and noisy if it is taken...

Solid texture synthesis from 2D exemplars
Johannes Kopf, Chi-Wing Fu, Daniel Cohen-Or, Oliver Deussen, Dani Lischinski, Tien-Tsin Wong
Article No.: 2
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276380

We present a novel method for synthesizing solid textures from 2D texture exemplars. First, we extend 2D texture optimization techniques to synthesize 3D texture solids. Next, the non-parametric texture optimization approach is integrated with...

Photo clip art
Jean-François Lalonde, Derek Hoiem, Alexei A. Efros, Carsten Rother, John Winn, Antonio Criminisi
Article No.: 3
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276381

We present a system for inserting new objects into existing photographs by querying a vast image-based object library, pre-computed using a publicly available Internet object database. The central goal is to shield the user from all of the arduous...

Scene completion using millions of photographs
James Hays, Alexei A. Efros
Article No.: 4
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276382

What can you do with a million images? In this paper we present a new image completion algorithm powered by a huge database of photographs gathered from the Web. The algorithm patches up holes in images by finding similar image regions in the...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Active learning for real-time motion controllers
Seth Cooper, Aaron Hertzmann, Zoran Popović
Article No.: 5
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276384

This paper describes an approach to building real-time highly-controllable characters. A kinematic character controller is built on-the-fly during a capture session, and updated after each new motion clip is acquired. Active learning is used to...

Responsive characters from motion fragments
James McCann, Nancy Pollard
Article No.: 6
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276385

In game environments, animated character motion must rapidly adapt to changes in player input - for example, if a directional signal from the player's gamepad is not incorporated into the character's trajectory immediately, the character may...

Near-optimal character animation with continuous control
Adrien Treuille, Yongjoon Lee, Zoran Popović
Article No.: 7
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276386

We present a new approach to realtime character animation with interactive control. Given a corpus of motion capture data and a desired task, we automatically compute near-optimal controllers using a low-dimensional basis representation. We show...

Constraint-based motion optimization using a statistical dynamic model
Jinxiang Chai, Jessica K. Hodgins
Article No.: 8
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276387

In this paper, we present a technique for generating animation from a variety of user-defined constraints. We pose constraint-based motion synthesis as a maximum a posterior (MAP) problem and develop an optimization framework that generates...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Soft scissors: an interactive tool for realtime high quality matting
Jue Wang, Maneesh Agrawala, Michael F. Cohen
Article No.: 9
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276389

We present Soft Scissors, an interactive tool for extracting alpha mattes of foreground objects in realtime. We recently proposed a novel offline matting algorithm capable of extracting high-quality mattes for complex foreground objects...

Seam carving for content-aware image resizing
Shai Avidan, Ariel Shamir
Article No.: 10
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276390

Effective resizing of images should not only use geometric constraints, but consider the image content as well. We present a simple image operator called seam carving that supports content-aware image resizing for both reduction and...

Image vectorization using optimized gradient meshes
Jian Sun, Lin Liang, Fang Wen, Heung-Yeung Shum
Article No.: 11
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276391

Recently, gradient meshes have been introduced as a powerful vector graphics representation to draw multicolored mesh objects with smooth transitions. Using tools from Abode Illustrator and Corel CorelDraw, a user can manually create gradient...

Detail preserving shape deformation in image editing
Hui Fang, John C. Hart
Article No.: 12
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276392

Shape deformation is a common practice in digital image editing, but can unrealistically stretch or compress texture detail. We propose an image editing system that decouples feature position from pixel color generation, by resynthesizing texture...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Volume conserving finite element simulations of deformable models
Geoffrey Irving, Craig Schroeder, Ronald Fedkiw
Article No.: 13
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276394

We propose a numerical method for modeling highly deformable nonlinear incompressible solids that conserves the volume locally near each node in a finite element mesh. Our method works with arbitrary constitutive models, is applicable to both...

Many-worlds browsing for control of multibody dynamics
Christopher D. Twigg, Doug L. James
Article No.: 14
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276395

Animation techniques for controlling passive simulation are commonly based on an optimization paradigm: the user provides goals a priori, and sophisticated numerical methods minimize a cost function that represents these goals....

Continuous collision detection for articulated models using Taylor models and temporal culling
Xinyu Zhang, Stephane Redon, Minkyoung Lee, Young J. Kim
Article No.: 15
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276396

We present a fast continuous collision detection (CCD) algorithm for articulated models using Taylor models and temporal culling. Our algorithm is a generalization of conservative advancement (CA) from convex models [Mirtich 1996] to articulated...

A finite element method for animating large viscoplastic flow
Adam W. Bargteil, Chris Wojtan, Jessica K. Hodgins, Greg Turk
Article No.: 16
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276397

We present an extension to Lagrangian finite element methods to allow for large plastic deformations of solid materials. These behaviors are seen in such everyday materials as shampoo, dough, and clay as well as in fantastic gooey and blobby...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Locally controllable stylized shading
Hideki Todo, Ken-ichi Anjyo, William Baxter, Takeo Igarashi
Article No.: 17
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276399

Recent progress in non-photorealistic rendering (NPR) has led to many stylized shading techniques that efficiently convey visual information about the objects depicted. Another crucial goal of NPR is to give artists simple and direct ways to...

Line drawings via abstracted shading
Yunjin Lee, Lee Markosian, Seungyong Lee, John F. Hughes
Article No.: 18
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276400

We describe a GPU-based algorithm for rendering a 3D model as a line drawing, based on the insight that a line drawing can be understood as an abstraction of a shaded image. We thus render lines along tone boundaries or thin dark areas in the...

Apparent ridges for line drawing
Tilke Judd, Frédo Durand, Edward Adelson
Article No.: 19
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276401

Three-dimensional shape can be drawn using a variety of feature lines, but none of the current definitions alone seem to capture all visually-relevant lines. We introduce a new definition of feature lines based on two perceptual observations....

Dynamic 2D patterns for shading 3D scenes
Simon Breslav, Karol Szerszen, Lee Markosian, Pascal Barla, Joëlle Thollot
Article No.: 20
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276402

We describe a new way to render 3D scenes in a variety of non-photorealistic styles, based on patterns whose structure and motion are defined in 2D. In doing so, we sacrifice the ability of patterns that wrap onto 3D surfaces to convey shape...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Global non-rigid alignment of 3-D scans
Benedict J. Brown, Szymon Rusinkiewicz
Article No.: 21
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276404

A key challenge in reconstructing high-quality 3D scans is registering data from different viewpoints. Existing global (multiview) alignment algorithms are restricted to rigid-body transformations, and cannot adequately handle non-rigid warps...

Parameterization-free projection for geometry reconstruction
Yaron Lipman, Daniel Cohen-Or, David Levin, Hillel Tal-Ezer
Article No.: 22
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276405

We introduce a Locally Optimal Projection operator (LOP) for surface approximation from point-set data. The operator is parameterization free, in the sense that it does not rely on estimating a local normal, fitting a local plane, or using any...

Algebraic point set surfaces
Gaël Guennebaud, Markus Gross
Article No.: 23
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276406

In this paper we present a new Point Set Surface (PSS) definition based on moving least squares (MLS) fitting of algebraic spheres. Our surface representation can be expressed by either a projection procedure or in implicit form. The central...

Direct visibility of point sets
Sagi Katz, Ayellet Tal, Ronen Basri
Article No.: 24
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276407

This paper proposes a simple and fast operator, the "Hidden" Point Removal operator, which determines the visible points in a point cloud, as viewed from a given viewpoint. Visibility is determined without reconstructing a surface or...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

The lightspeed automatic interactive lighting preview system
Jonathan Ragan-Kelley, Charlie Kilpatrick, Brian W. Smith, Doug Epps, Paul Green, Christophe Hery, Frédo Durand
Article No.: 25
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276409

We present an automated approach for high-quality preview of feature-film rendering during lighting design. Similar to previous work, we use a deep-framebuffer shaded on the GPU to achieve interactive performance. Our first contribution is to...

Matrix row-column sampling for the many-light problem
Miloš Hašan, Fabio Pellacini, Kavita Bala
Article No.: 26
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276410

Rendering complex scenes with indirect illumination, high dynamic range environment lighting, and many direct light sources remains a challenging problem. Prior work has shown that all these effects can be approximated by many point lights. This...

Interactive relighting with dynamic BRDFs
Xin Sun, Kun Zhou, Yanyun Chen, Stephen Lin, Jiaoying Shi, Baining Guo
Article No.: 27
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276411

We present a technique for interactive relighting in which source radiance, viewing direction, and BRDFs can all be changed on the fly. In handling dynamic BRDFs, our method efficiently accounts for the effects of BRDF modification on the...

Frequency domain normal map filtering
Charles Han, Bo Sun, Ravi Ramamoorthi, Eitan Grinspun
Article No.: 28
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276412

Filtering is critical for representing detail, such as color textures or normal maps, across a variety of scales. While MIP-mapping texture maps is commonplace, accurate normal map filtering remains a challenging problem because of nonlinearities...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Image-guided maze construction
Jie Xu, Craig S. Kaplan
Article No.: 29
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276414

We present a set of graphical and combinatorial algorithms for designing mazes based on images. The designer traces regions of interest in an image and annotates the regions with style parameters. They can optionally specify a solution path, which...

Dynamic planar map illustration
Paul Asente, Mike Schuster, Teri Pettit
Article No.: 30
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276415

There are many types of illustrations that are easier to create in planar-map-based illustration systems than in the more common stacking-based systems. One weakness shared by all existing planar-map-based systems is that the editability of the...

Interactive cutaway illustrations of complex 3D models
Wilmot Li, Lincoln Ritter, Maneesh Agrawala, Brian Curless, David Salesin
Article No.: 31
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276416

We present a system for authoring and viewing interactive cutaway illustrations of complex 3D models using conventions of traditional scientific and technical illustration. Our approach is based on the two key ideas that 1) cuts should respect the...

Digital bas-relief from 3D scenes
Tim Weyrich, Jia Deng, Connelly Barnes, Szymon Rusinkiewicz, Adam Finkelstein
Article No.: 32
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276417

We present a system for semi-automatic creation of bas-relief sculpture. As an artistic medium, relief spans the continuum between 2D drawing or painting and full 3D sculpture. Bas-relief (or low relief) presents the unique challenge of squeezing...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Multi-scale capture of facial geometry and motion
Bernd Bickel, Mario Botsch, Roland Angst, Wojciech Matusik, Miguel Otaduy, Hanspeter Pfister, Markus Gross
Article No.: 33
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276419

We present a novel multi-scale representation and acquisition method for the animation of high-resolution facial geometry and wrinkles. We first acquire a static scan of the face including reflectance data at the highest possible quality. We then...

Capturing and animating occluded cloth
Ryan White, Keenan Crane, D. A. Forsyth
Article No.: 34
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276420

We capture the shape of moving cloth using a custom set of color markers printed on the surface of the cloth. The output is a sequence of triangle meshes with static connectivity and with detail at the scale of individual markers in both smooth...

Practical motion capture in everyday surroundings
Daniel Vlasic, Rolf Adelsberger, Giovanni Vannucci, John Barnwell, Markus Gross, Wojciech Matusik, Jovan Popović
Article No.: 35
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276421

Commercial motion-capture systems produce excellent in-studio reconstructions, but offer no comparable solution for acquisition in everyday environments. We present a system for acquiring motions almost anywhere. This wearable system gathers...

Prakash: lighting aware motion capture using photosensing markers and multiplexed illuminators
Ramesh Raskar, Hideaki Nii, Bert deDecker, Yuki Hashimoto, Jay Summet, Dylan Moore, Yong Zhao, Jonathan Westhues, Paul Dietz, John Barnwell, Shree Nayar, Masahiko Inami, Philippe Bekaert, Michael Noland, Vlad Branzoi, Erich Bruns
Article No.: 36
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276422

In this paper, we present a high speed optical motion capture method that can measure three dimensional motion, orientation, and incident illumination at tagged points in a scene. We use tracking tags that work in natural lighting conditions and...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Veiling glare in high dynamic range imaging
Eino-Ville Talvala, Andrew Adams, Mark Horowitz, Marc Levoy
Article No.: 37
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276424

The ability of a camera to record a high dynamic range image, whether by taking one snapshot or a sequence, is limited by the presence of veiling glare - the tendency of bright objects in the scene to reduce the contrast everywhere within the...

Do HDR displays support LDR content?: a psychophysical evaluation
Ahmet Oǧuz Akyüz, Roland Fleming, Bernhard E. Riecke, Erik Reinhard, Heinrich H. Bülthoff
Article No.: 38
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276425

The development of high dynamic range (HDR) imagery has brought us to the verge of arguably the largest change in image display technologies since the transition from black-and-white to color television. Novel capture and display hardware will...

Ldr2Hdr: on-the-fly reverse tone mapping of legacy video and photographs
Allan G. Rempel, Matthew Trentacoste, Helge Seetzen, H. David Young, Wolfgang Heidrich, Lorne Whitehead, Greg Ward
Article No.: 39
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276426

New generations of display devices promise to provide significantly improved dynamic range over conventional display technology. In the long run, evolving camera technology and file formats will provide high fidelity content for these display...

Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display
Andrew Jones, Ian McDowall, Hideshi Yamada, Mark Bolas, Paul Debevec
Article No.: 40
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276427

We describe a set of rendering techniques for an autostereoscopic light field display able to present interactive 3D graphics to multiple simultaneous viewers 360 degrees around the display. The display consists of a high-speed video projector, a...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

FiberMesh: designing freeform surfaces with 3D curves
Andrew Nealen, Takeo Igarashi, Olga Sorkine, Marc Alexa
Article No.: 41
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276429

This paper presents a system for designing freeform surfaces with a collection of 3D curves. The user first creates a rough 3D model by using a sketching interface. Unlike previous sketching systems, the user-drawn strokes stay on the model...

Editing the topology of 3D models by sketching
Tao Ju, Qian-Yi Zhou, Shi-Min Hu
Article No.: 42
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276430

We present a method for modifying the topology of a 3D model with user control. The heart of our method is a guided topology editing algorithm. Given a source model and a user-provided target shape, the algorithm modifies the source so that...

Interactive topology-aware surface reconstruction
Andrei Sharf, Thomas Lewiner, Gil Shklarski, Sivan Toledo, Daniel Cohen-Or
Article No.: 43
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276431

The reconstruction of a complete watertight model from scan data is still a difficult process. In particular, since scanned data is often incomplete, the reconstruction of the expected shape is an ill-posed problem. Techniques that reconstruct...

ShapePalettes: interactive normal transfer via sketching
Tai-Pang Wu, Chi-Keung Tang, Michael S. Brown, Heung-Yeung Shum
Article No.: 44
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276432

We present a simple interactive approach to specify 3D shape in a single view using "shape palettes". The interaction is as follows: draw a simple 2D primitive in the 2D view and then specify its 3D orientation by drawing a corresponding primitive...

Plushie: an interactive design system for plush toys
Yuki Mori, Takeo Igarashi
Article No.: 45
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276433

We introduce Plushie, an interactive system that allows nonprofessional users to design their own original plush toys. To design a plush toy, one needs to construct an appropriate two-dimensional (2D) pattern. However, it is difficult for...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Curl-noise for procedural fluid flow
Robert Bridson, Jim Houriham, Marcus Nordenstam
Article No.: 46
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276435

Procedural methods for animating turbulent fluid are often preferred over simulation, both for speed and for the degree of animator control. We offer an extremely simple approach to efficiently generating turbulent velocity fields based on Perlin...

Wrinkled flames and cellular patterns
Jeong-Mo Hong, Tamar Shinar, Ronald Fedkiw
Article No.: 47
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276436

We model flames and fire using the Navier-Stokes equations combined with the level set method and jump conditions to model the reaction front. Previous works modeled the flame using a combination of propagation in the normal direction and a...

Adaptively sampled particle fluids
Bart Adams, Mark Pauly, Richard Keiser, Leonidas J. Guibas
Article No.: 48
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276437

We present novel adaptive sampling algorithms for particle-based fluid simulation. We introduce a sampling condition based on geometric local feature size that allows focusing computational resources in geometrically complex regions, while...

Efficient simulation of inextensible cloth
Rony Goldenthal, David Harmon, Raanan Fattal, Michel Bercovier, Eitan Grinspun
Article No.: 49
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276438

Many textiles do not noticeably stretch under their own weight. Unfortunately, for better performance many cloth solvers disregard this fact. We propose a method to obtain very low strain along the warp and weft direction using Constrained...

TRACKS: toward directable thin shells
Miklós Bergou, Saurabh Mathur, Max Wardetzky, Eitan Grinspun
Article No.: 50
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276439

We combine the often opposing forces of artistic freedom and mathematical determinism to enrich a given animation or simulation of a surface with physically based detail. We present a process called tracking, which takes as input a rough...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Multiscale shape and detail enhancement from multi-light image collections
Raanan Fattal, Maneesh Agrawala, Szymon Rusinkiewicz
Article No.: 51
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276441

We present a new image-based technique for enhancing the shape and surface details of an object. The input to our system is a small set of photographs taken from a fixed viewpoint, but under varying lighting conditions. For each image we compute a...

Post-production facial performance relighting using reflectance transfer
Pieter Peers, Naoki Tamura, Wojciech Matusik, Paul Debevec
Article No.: 52
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276442

We propose a novel post-production facial performance relighting system for human actors. Our system uses just a dataset of view-dependent facial appearances with a neutral expression, captured for a static subject using a Light Stage apparatus....

Interactive editing and modeling of bidirectional texture functions
Jan Kautz, Solomon Boulos, Frédo Durand
Article No.: 53
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276443

While measured Bidirectional Texture Functions (BTF) enable impressive realism in material appearance, they offer little control, which limits their use for content creation. In this work, we interactively manipulate BTFs and create new BTFs from...

AppWand: editing measured materials using appearance-driven optimization
Fabio Pellacini, Jason Lawrence
Article No.: 54
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276444

We investigate a new approach to editing spatially- and temporally-varying measured materials that adopts a stroke-based workflow. In our system, a user specifies a small number of editing constraints with a 3-D painting interface which are...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Rotational symmetry field design on surfaces
Jonathan Palacios, Eugene Zhang
Article No.: 55
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276446

Designing rotational symmetries on surfaces is a necessary task for a wide variety of graphics applications, such as surface parameterization and remeshing, painterly rendering and pen-and-ink sketching, and texture synthesis. In these...

Design of tangent vector fields
Matthew Fisher, Peter Schröder, Mathieu Desbrun, Hugues Hoppe
Article No.: 56
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276447

Tangent vector fields are an essential ingredient in controlling surface appearance for applications ranging from anisotropic shading to texture synthesis and non-photorealistic rendering. To achieve a desired effect one is typically interested in...

Isosurface stuffing: fast tetrahedral meshes with good dihedral angles
François Labelle, Jonathan Richard Shewchuk
Article No.: 57
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276448

The isosurface stuffing algorithm fills an isosurface with a uniformly sized tetrahedral mesh whose dihedral angles are bounded between 10.7° and 164.8°, or (with a change in parameters) between 8.9° and 158.8°. The...

Robust on-line computation of Reeb graphs: simplicity and speed
Valerio Pascucci, Giorgio Scorzelli, Peer-Timo Bremer, Ajith Mascarenhas
Article No.: 58
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276449

Reeb graphs are a fundamental data structure for understanding and representing the topology of shapes. They are used in computer graphics, solid modeling, and visualization for applications ranging from the computation of similarities and finding...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Eikonal rendering: efficient light transport in refractive objects
Ivo Ihrke, Gernot Ziegler, Art Tevs, Christian Theobalt, Marcus Magnor, Hans-Peter Seidel
Article No.: 59
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276451

We present a new method for real-time rendering of sophisticated lighting effects in and around refractive objects. It enables us to realistically display refractive objects with complex material properties, such as arbitrarily varying refractive...

Computing the scattering properties of participating media using Lorenz-Mie theory
Jeppe Revall Frisvad, Niels Jørgen Christensen, Henrik Wann Jensen
Article No.: 60
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276452

This paper introduces a theoretical model for computing the scattering properties of participating media and translucent materials. The model takes as input a description of the components of a medium and computes all the parameters necessary to...

Implicit visibility and antiradiance for interactive global illumination
Carsten Dachsbacher, Marc Stamminger, George Drettakis, Frédo Durand
Article No.: 61
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276453

We reformulate the rendering equation to alleviate the need for explicit visibility computation, thus enabling interactive global illumination on graphics hardware. This is achieved by treating visibility implicitly and propagating an...

A theory of locally low dimensional light transport
Dhruv Mahajan, Ira Kemelmacher Shlizerman, Ravi Ramamoorthi, Peter Belhumeur
Article No.: 62
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276454

Blockwise or Clustered Principal Component Analysis (CPCA) is commonly used to achieve real-time rendering of shadows and glossy reflections with precomputed radiance transfer (PRT). The vertices or pixels are partitioned into smaller coherent...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Symmetrization
Niloy J. Mitra, Leonidas J. Guibas, Mark Pauly
Article No.: 63
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276456

We present a symmetrization algorithm for geometric objects. Our algorithm enhances approximate symmetries of a model while minimally altering its shape. Symmetrizing deformations are formulated as an optimization process that couples the spatial...

Geometric modeling in shape space
Martin Kilian, Niloy J. Mitra, Helmut Pottmann
Article No.: 64
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276457

We present a novel framework to treat shapes in the setting of Riemannian geometry. Shapes -- triangular meshes or more generally straight line graphs in Euclidean space -- are treated as points in a shape space. We introduce useful Riemannian...

Geometry of multi-layer freeform structures for architecture
Helmut Pottmann, Yang Liu, Johannes Wallner, Alexander Bobenko, Wenping Wang
Article No.: 65
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276458

The geometric challenges in the architectural design of freeform shapes come mainly from the physical realization of beams and nodes. We approach them via the concept of parallel meshes, and present methods of computation and optimization. We...

A variational approach to Eulerian geometry processing
Patrick Mullen, Alexander McKenzie, Yiying Tong, Mathieu Desbrun
Article No.: 66
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276459

We present a purely Eulerian framework for geometry processing of surfaces and foliations. Contrary to current Eulerian methods used in graphics, we use conservative methods and a variational interpretation, offering a unified framework for...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Active refocusing of images and videos
Francesc Moreno-Noguer, Peter N. Belhumeur, Shree K. Nayar
Article No.: 67
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276461

We present a system for refocusing images and videos of dynamic scenes using a novel, single-view depth estimation method. Our method for obtaining depth is based on the defocus of a sparse set of dots projected onto the scene. In contrast to...

Multi-aperture photography
Paul Green, Wenyang Sun, Wojciech Matusik, Frédo Durand
Article No.: 68
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276462

The emergent field of computational photography is proving that, by coupling generalized imaging optics with software processing, the quality and flexibility of imaging systems can be increased. In this paper, we capture and manipulate multiple...

Dappled photography: mask enhanced cameras for heterodyned light fields and coded aperture refocusing
Ashok Veeraraghavan, Ramesh Raskar, Amit Agrawal, Ankit Mohan, Jack Tumblin
Article No.: 69
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276463

We describe a theoretical framework for reversibly modulating 4D light fields using an attenuating mask in the optical path of a lens based camera. Based on this framework, we present a novel design to reconstruct the 4D light field from a 2D...

Image and depth from a conventional camera with a coded aperture
Anat Levin, Rob Fergus, Frédo Durand, William T. Freeman
Article No.: 70
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276464

A conventional camera captures blurred versions of scene information away from the plane of focus. Camera systems have been proposed that allow for recording all-focus images, or for extracting depth, but to record both simultaneously has required...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Harmonic coordinates for character articulation
Pushkar Joshi, Mark Meyer, Tony DeRose, Brian Green, Tom Sanocki
Article No.: 71
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276466

In this paper we consider the problem of creating and controlling volume deformations used to articulate characters for use in high-end applications such as computer generated feature films. We introduce a method we call harmonic coordinates that...

Automatic rigging and animation of 3D characters
Ilya Baran, Jovan Popović
Article No.: 72
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276467

Animating an articulated 3D character currently requires manual rigging to specify its internal skeletal structure and to define how the input motion deforms its surface. We present a method for animating characters automatically. Given a static...

Real-time enveloping with rotational regression
Robert Y. Wang, Kari Pulli, Jovan Popović
Article No.: 73
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276468

Enveloping, or the mapping of skeletal controls to the deformations of a surface, is key to driving realistic animated characters. Despite its widespread use, enveloping still relies on slow or inaccurate deformation methods. We propose a method...

Key Point Subspace Acceleration and soft caching
Mark Meyer, John Anderson
Article No.: 74
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276469

Many applications in Computer Graphics contain computationally expensive calculations. These calculations are often performed at many points to produce a full solution, even though the subspace of reasonable solutions may be of a relatively low...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Color images visible under UV light
Roger D. Hersch, Philipp Donzé, Sylvain Chosson
Article No.: 75
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276471

The present contribution aims at creating color images printed with fluorescent inks that are only visible under UV light. The considered fluorescent inks absorb light in the UV wavelength range and reemit part of it in the visible wavelength...

Visual equivalence: towards a new standard for image fidelity
Ganesh Ramanarayanan, James Ferwerda, Bruce Walter, Kavita Bala
Article No.: 76
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276472

Efficient, realistic rendering of complex scenes is one of the grand challenges in computer graphics. Perceptually based rendering addresses this challenge by taking advantage of the limits of human vision. However, existing methods, based on...

The influence of shape on the perception of material reflectance
Peter Vangorp, Jurgen Laurijssen, Philip Dutré
Article No.: 77
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276473

Visual observation is our principal source of information in determining the nature of objects, including shape, material or roughness. The physiological and cognitive processes that resolve visual input into an estimate of the material of an...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Sampling with polyominoes
Victor Ostromoukhov
Article No.: 78
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276475

We present a new general-purpose method for fast hierarchical importance sampling with blue-noise properties. Our approach is based on self-similar tiling of the plane or the surface of a sphere with rectifiable polyominoes. Sampling points are...

Stochastic simplification of aggregate detail
Robert L. Cook, John Halstead, Maxwell Planck, David Ryu
Article No.: 79
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276476

Many renderers perform poorly on scenes that contain a lot of detailed geometry. The load on the renderer can be alleviated by simplification techniques, which create less expensive representations of geometry that is small on the screen. Current...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Embedded deformation for shape manipulation
Robert W. Sumner, Johannes Schmid, Mark Pauly
Article No.: 80
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276478

We present an algorithm that generates natural and intuitive deformations via direct manipulation for a wide range of shape representations and editing scenarios. Our method builds a space deformation represented by a collection of affine...

Mesh puppetry: cascading optimization of mesh deformation with inverse kinematics
Xiaohan Shi, Kun Zhou, Yiying Tong, Mathieu Desbrun, Hujun Bao, Baining Guo
Article No.: 81
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276479

We present mesh puppetry, a variational framework for detail-preserving mesh manipulation through a set of high-level, intuitive, and interactive design tools. Our approach builds upon traditional rigging by optimizing skeleton position and...

FastLSM: fast lattice shape matching for robust real-time deformation
Alec R. Rivers, Doug L. James
Article No.: 82
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276480

We introduce a simple technique that enables robust approximation of volumetric, large-deformation dynamics for real-time or large-scale offline simulations. We propose Lattice Shape Matching, an extension of deformable shape matching to...

Handle-aware isolines for scalable shape editing
Oscar Kin-Chung Au, Hongbo Fu, Chiew-Lan Tai, Daniel Cohen-Or
Article No.: 83
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276481

Handle-based mesh deformation is essentially a nonlinear problem. To allow scalability, the original deformation problem can be approximately represented by a compact set of control variables. We show the direct relation between the locations of...

Gradient domain editing of deforming mesh sequences
Weiwei Xu, Kun Zhou, Yizhou Yu, Qifeng Tan, Qunsheng Peng, Baining Guo
Article No.: 84
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276482

Many graphics applications, including computer games and 3D animated films, make heavy use of deforming mesh sequences. In this paper, we generalize gradient domain editing to deforming mesh sequences. Our framework is keyframe based. Given sparse...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Image-based procedural modeling of facades
Pascal Müller, Gang Zeng, Peter Wonka, Luc Van Gool
Article No.: 85
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276484

This paper describes algorithms to automatically derive 3D models of high visual quality from single facade images of arbitrary resolutions. We combine the procedural modeling pipeline of shape grammars with image analysis to derive a meaningful...

VideoTrace: rapid interactive scene modelling from video
Anton van den Hengel, Anthony Dick, Thorsten Thormählen, Ben Ward, Philip H. S. Torr
Article No.: 86
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276485

VideoTrace is a system for interactively generating realistic 3D models of objects from video---models that might be inserted into a video game, a simulation environment, or another video sequence. The user interacts with VideoTrace by tracing the...

Image-based tree modeling
Ping Tan, Gang Zeng, Jingdong Wang, Sing Bing Kang, Long Quan
Article No.: 87
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276486

In this paper, we propose an approach for generating 3D models of natural-looking trees from images that has the additional benefit of requiring little user intervention. While our approach is primarily image-based, we do not model each leaf...

Approximate image-based tree-modeling using particle flows
Boris Neubert, Thomas Franken, Oliver Deussen
Article No.: 88
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276487

We present a method for producing 3D tree models from input photographs with only limited user intervention. An approximate voxel-based tree volume is estimated using image information. The density values of the voxels are used to produce initial...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Fast triangle reordering for vertex locality and reduced overdraw
Pedro V. Sander, Diego Nehab, Joshua Barczak
Article No.: 89
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276489

We present novel algorithms that optimize the order in which triangles are rendered, to improve post-transform vertex cache efficiency as well as for view-independent overdraw reduction. The resulting triangle orders perform on par with previous...

A hardware architecture for surface splatting
Tim Weyrich, Simon Heinzle, Timo Aila, Daniel B. Fasnacht, Stephan Oetiker, Mario Botsch, Cyril Flaig, Simon Mall, Kaspar Rohrer, Norbert Felber, Hubert Kaeslin, Markus Gross
Article No.: 90
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276490

We present a novel architecture for hardware-accelerated rendering of point primitives. Our pipeline implements a refined version of EWA splatting, a high quality method for antialiased rendering of point sampled representations. A central feature...

Direct manipulation of subdivision surfaces on GPUs
Kun Zhou, Xin Huang, Weiwei Xu, Baining Guo, Heung-Yeung Shum
Article No.: 91
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276491

We present an algorithm for interactive deformation of subdivision surfaces, including displaced subdivision surfaces and subdivision surfaces with geometric textures. Our system lets the user directly manipulate the surface using freely-selected...

PCU: the programmable culling unit
Jon Hasselgren, Thomas Akenine-Möller
Article No.: 92
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276492

Culling techniques have always been a central part of computer graphics, but graphics hardware still lack efficient and flexible support for culling. To improve the situation, we introduce the programmable culling unit, which is as flexible as the...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Capturing and viewing gigapixel images
Johannes Kopf, Matt Uyttendaele, Oliver Deussen, Michael F. Cohen
Article No.: 93
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276494

We present a system to capture and view "Gigapixel images": very high resolution, high dynamic range, and wide angle imagery consisting of several billion pixels each. A specialized camera mount, in combination with an automated pipeline for...

Efficient gradient-domain compositing using quadtrees
Aseem Agarwala
Article No.: 94
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276495

We describe a hierarchical approach to improving the efficiency of gradient-domain compositing, a technique that constructs seamless composites by combining the gradients of images into a vector field that is then integrated to form a...

Image upsampling via imposed edge statistics
Raanan Fattal
Article No.: 95
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276496

In this paper we propose a new method for upsampling images which is capable of generating sharp edges with reduced input-resolution grid-related artifacts. The method is based on a statistical edge dependency relating certain edge features of two...

Joint bilateral upsampling
Johannes Kopf, Michael F. Cohen, Dani Lischinski, Matt Uyttendaele
Article No.: 96
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276497

Image analysis and enhancement tasks such as tone mapping, colorization, stereo depth, and photomontage, often require computing a solution (e.g., for exposure, chromaticity, disparity, labels) over the pixel grid. Computational and memory costs...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Bubbling and frothing liquids
Paul W. Cleary, Soon Hyoung Pyo, Mahesh Prakash, Bon Ki Koo
Article No.: 97
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276499

We present a discrete particle based method capable of creating very realistic animations of bubbles in fluids. It allows for the generation (nucleation) of bubbles from gas dissolved in the fluid, the motion of the discrete bubbles including...

Simulation of bubbles in foam with the volume control method
Byungmoon Kim, Yingjie Liu, Ignacio Llamas, Xiangmin Jiao, Jarek Rossignac
Article No.: 98
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276500

Liquid and gas interactions often produce bubbles that stay for a long time without bursting on the surface, making a dry foam structure. Such long lasting bubbles simulated by the level set method can suffer from a small but steady volume error...

Wave particles
Cem Yuksel, Donald H. House, John Keyser
Article No.: 99
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276501

We present a new method for the real-time simulation of fluid surface waves and their interactions with floating objects. The method is based on the new concept of wave particles, which offers a simple, fast, and unconditionally stable approach to...

A fast variational framework for accurate solid-fluid coupling
Christopher Batty, Florence Bertails, Robert Bridson
Article No.: 100
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276502

Physical simulation has emerged as a compelling animation technique, yet current approaches to coupling simulations of fluids and solids with irregular boundary geometry are inefficient or cannot handle some relevant scenarios robustly. We propose...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

Factored time-lapse video
Kalyan Sunkavalli, Wojciech Matusik, Hanspeter Pfister, Szymon Rusinkiewicz
Article No.: 101
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276504

We describe a method for converting time-lapse photography captured with outdoor cameras into Factored Time-Lapse Video (FTLV): a video in which time appears to move faster (i.e., lapsing) and where data at each pixel has been factored into...

Computational time-lapse video
Eric P. Bennett, Leonard McMillan
Article No.: 102
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276505

We present methods for generating novel time-lapse videos that address the inherent sampling issues that arise with traditional photographic techniques. Starting with video-rate footage as input, our post-process downsamples the source material...

Real-time edge-aware image processing with the bilateral grid
Jiawen Chen, Sylvain Paris, Frédo Durand
Article No.: 103
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276506

We present a new data structure---the bilateral grid, that enables fast edge-aware image processing. By working in the bilateral grid, algorithms such as bilateral filtering, edge-aware painting, and local histogram equalization become...

Video watercolorization using bidirectional texture advection
Adrien Bousseau, Fabrice Neyret, Joëlle Thollot, David Salesin
Article No.: 104
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276507

In this paper, we present a method for creating watercolor-like animation, starting from video as input. The method involves two main steps: applying textures that simulate a watercolor appearance; and creating a simplified, abstracted version of...

Section: Image analysis & enhancement

SIMBICON: simple biped locomotion control
KangKang Yin, Kevin Loken, Michiel van de Panne
Article No.: 105
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276509

Physics-based simulation and control of biped locomotion is difficult because bipeds are unstable, underactuated, high-dimensional dynamical systems. We develop a simple control strategy that can be used to generate a large variety of gaits and...

Construction and optimal search of interpolated motion graphs
Alla Safonova, Jessica K. Hodgins
Article No.: 106
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276510

Many compelling applications would become feasible if novice users had the ability to synthesize high quality human motion based only on a simple sketch and a few easily specified constraints. We approach this problem by representing the desired...

Simulating biped behaviors from human motion data
Kwang Won Sok, Manmyung Kim, Jehee Lee
Article No.: 107
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276511

Physically based simulation of human motions is an important issue in the context of computer animation, robotics and biomechanics. We present a new technique for allowing our physically-simulated planar biped characters to imitate human...

Efficient symbolic differentiation for graphics applications
Brian Guenter
Article No.: 108
DOI: 10.1145/1276377.1276512

Functions with densely interconnected expression graphs, which arise in computer graphics applications such as dynamics, space-time optimization, and PRT, can be difficult to efficiently differentiate using existing symbolic or automatic...